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Virginia Commonwealth University 



Fall 1985 



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SLEEP DISORDERS 

STUDYING THE STUDY OF THE HOLOCAUST 
AMERICAN CULT MYTHOLOGY 



N D A R 



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DANCE 

December 9, 10: Holly Schiffer 
and Alan Sener, VCU Dance 
Center, 

February 14, 15: VCU Dance 
Faculty Concert, the Empire 
Ttieatre. 

March 1: The Zeromovlng Com- 
pany, VCU Dance Center, 
April 11, 12: VCU Student/Faculty 
Concert, the Empire Theatre, 

AH performances are at 8 pm; admis- 
sion is $3 to the public. To make 
reservations and for more information, 
contact the Deparimeni of Dance and 
Choreograph-^, 1315 Floyd Avenue, 
Richmond. VA 23284-0001; (804) 
257-1711, 

Informal Events (free admission] 
Informal studio showings of stu- 
dent wor1< are scheduled in the 
VCU Dance Center on February 
21, 6 pm; March 28, 6 pm; and 
May 2, 8 pm (includes facuity 
work]. Senior projects in choreog- 
raphy and performance are 
scheduled in the VCU Dance 
Center on December 6 and 7 at 
8 pm and April 25 and 26 at 8 
pm. Contact the department for 
more information. 

FILM 

December 6, 7: Merry Christ- 
mas, Mr Lawrence, 8 and 
10:30 pm. 

December 8: Cruel Story of 
Youth (Alternative Film), 5:30 and 
7:30 pm. 

Films are shown in the University 
Student Commons Theatre, 907 Floyd 
Avenue. Admission is $2 to the public. 
Fen more information, contact the VCU 
Programming Committee, Student 
Actit^ities, 907 Floyd Avenue, Rich- 
mond, VA 23284-0001; (804) 
257-1981. 

INTERNATIONAL 
STUDIES 

May 19-June 6: Russia— A Study 

in Urban Culture; 32,325. 

May 22-June 12: Art History in 

Paris, S990. 

July 1-30: Italy; $470. 

July 7-August 2: Austria, S770. 

For more mformatirm arvi a payment 
schedule, contact the International 
Studies Office, Division of Continuing 
Sli«iies arui Public Service, 301 West 
Franklm Street, Richmorul, VA 23220; 
(804) 786-0342. 



MANAGEMENT 
CENTER 

Information Systems Education 
Program 

December 16-17: Symphony 1A: 
Spreadsheeting and Graphics; 
S375. 

December 16-19: How to Pro- 
gram in BASIC; $495. 
December 17: Symphony IB: 
Spreadsheeting and Graphics; 
S195. 

DecemberlS: Symphony II; 
Word Processing and Database; 
$195. 

December 19: Symphony III; 
Integrating, Programming, and 
Communications; $195. 

Registration fee includes instructional 
materials, lunch and break refresh- 
ments, and parking. All seminars are 
conducted m the School of Business. For 
more information about registration and 
lodging, contact the Management 
Center, School of Business, 1015 Floyd 
Avenue, Richmond, VA 23284-0001; 
(804) 257-1279. 

MUSIC 

Terrace Concert Series 
All concerts are held at the VCU 
Performing Arts Center, 922 Park 
Avenue, 8 pm. The Terrace Con- 
cert Series is sponsored by the 
Department of Music, School of 
the Arts, and the John F. Kennedy 
Center for the Performing Arts, 
The series is supported by the 
CSX Corporation, 
February 11: The Brandenburg 
Ensemble; Alexander Schneider, 
conductor, 

February 26: The Muir String 
Quartet with Peter Orth, piano, 
March 26: Ani Kavafian, violinist; 
Ida Kavafian, violinist and violist; 
Jonathan Feldman, pianist, 
April 21: The Dresden Chamber 
Ensemble; Manfred Scherzer, 
concertmaster. 
May 9: The Romero Guitar 
Quartet. 

Terrace Companion Series 
The Department of Music and 
the Virginia Museum of Fine Arts 
collaborate for 1985-86 to 
present a series of concerts 
ranging from French impression- 
istic styles to New Wave, The 
companion series complements 
the Terrace Concert Series, Times 
and locations are available from 
the Department of Music, 
December 7: Philip Glass (New 
Music Series), 

January 19: Steve Reich (New 
Music Series). 



February 5: The San Francisco 
Boys Chorus, 

February 18: Frans Brueggen. 
March 1: Glenn Branca (New 
Music Series). 

March 6: The Fresk Quartet. 
In addition to the above, early 
music and twentieth century 
music will be performed by 
faculty and students from VCU, 
the University of Richmond, and 
Virginia Union University; perform- 
ances will be held in Virginia 
Museum galleries. For a sched- 
ule, contact the Department of 
Music. 

Regular Performances 
December 3: Madrigalists, 
Performing Arts Center, 8 pm. 
December 5: VCU Jazz Orches- 
tra II, Performing Arts Center, 
8 pm. 

December 6, 7: Choral Group, 
Sacred Heart Cathedral, 8 pm. 
December 8: Opera Workshop, 
Performing Arts Center, 3 pm, 
December 10: Madrigalists, 
Virginia Museum, 8 pm; VCU 
Symphony Orchestra, Performing 
Arts Center, 8 pm. 

For more information about these and 
other concerts, contact the Department 
of Music, 922 Park Avenue, Rich- 
mond, VA 23284-0001; (804) 
257-6046. 

THEATRE 

February 5-8, 9, 11-15: Other 
Places by Harold Pinter. Produc- 
tions on February 5-8 and 11-15 
are held at 8 pm, Shafer Street 
Playhouse. The production on 
Febnjary 9 is at 2:30 pm, 221 
North Shafer Street. 
April 9-12, 13, 15-19: The Three 
Sisters by Anton Chekhov, Pro- 
ductions on April 9-12 and 15-19 
are held at 8 pm, Raymond 
Hodges Theatre, The production 
on April 13, is at 2;30 pm. Per- 
forming Arts Center. 

General admission is $5. Senior citijen 
and group rate admission is $4. For 
more information, contact the Depart- 
ment of Theatre Box Office, Performing 
Arts Center, 922 Parle Afenue, Rich- 
mond, VA 23284-0001; (804) 
257-6026. 



ETCETERA 

Holiday Intersession 
December 27-January 11 : Up 

to three credits may be earned 
from 40 courses being offered in 
such areas as history, literature, 
social science, and psychology. 
For registration information, 
contact the Evening and Sum- 
mer Studies Office, 901 West 
Franklin Street, room 107, Rich- 
mond, VA 23284-0001; (804) 257- 
0200. 

Massey Cancer Center 

Information about the following 

events is available from the 

Massey Cancer Center, Office 

of Communications, Box 37, 

Richmond, VA 23298-0001; (804) 

786-0448. 

February 11: Pendleton Lecture; 

Dr. Stephen Rosenberg, speaker 

February 19: Student Cancer 

Day/Tapan Hazra Memorial 

Lecture, 

March 22: Sixth Annual Scientific 

Research Seminar 

MCV Alumni Association of VCU 
Information about divisional 
meetings is available from the 
MCV Alumni Association of VCU, 
1105 East Clay Street, Richmond, 
VA 23298-0001; (804) 786-0434. 
December 6-7: Medical Divi- 
sion Annual Meeting, Richmond 
Marriott. 

December 8-12: Pharmacy 
Division Annual Meeting, in 
conjunction with the meeting of 
the American Society of Hospital 
Pharmacists, New Orleans. 

Medical Technology 
Alumni Meeting 
March 11-14: The alumni meet- 
ing will be held in conjunction 
with the spring meeting of the 
Virginia Society for Medical 
Technology, Roanoke. For more 
information, contact the Depart- 
ment of Medical Technology, 
School of Allied Health Profes- 
sions, Box 583, Richmond, VA 
23298-0001; (804) 786-7549. 

Nursing Workshop 
December 16, 17: The School of 
Nursing hosts "Moving into the 
Age of Computer-Supported 
Education." Designed for faculty 
of schools of nursing, the work- 
shop provides basic information 
about computer technology; 
components of a computer 
system; and specific application, 
practice, research, and educa- 
tion. For more information, con- 
tact the School of Nursing, Box 
567, Richmond, VA 23298-0001; 
(804) 786-0724. 



Volume 14, Number 2 



Fall 1985 



A publication for alumni and friends of 



Virginia Commonwealth University 



Elaine Jones, editor 
Scott Wright, art director 
David Mattiis, director of VCU 
Pubiications 



Limited Edition Discourse 2 

Program Chronicle 4 

Apathy, anti-Semitism, and 7 
authority 

In his review of a recent book on the Holocaust, a history profes- 
sor examines some of the widely held assumptions about the 
causes that led to the violent result of anti-Semitism in Nazi 
Germany. 



Cult facts and fictions 



10 



When the new religious groups, or "cults," appeared in the 1970s 
on the American scene, a public outcry soon followed, which 
eventually centered in the Anti-Cult Movement, The chairman of 
the Department of Sociology and Anthropology refutes the myths 
anti-cultists hove constructed about the influence of these new 
religions. 



Curing a bad night's sleep 16 

As the wor)< in the MCV Hospitals' Sleep Disorders Center attests, 
sometimes depression, anxiety, or stress can be traced to a sleep 
disorder In fact, nearly everyone at some point in his or her life 
will experience a sleep problem, and about 30 percent of the 
population suffers from sleep disorders severe enough to require 
professional help. 



VCU PUBUCATIONS 8a-8€ 



University in the News 
Research Exchange 
Newsmakers 
Alumni Update 



20 
23 

25 
27 



Located in Virginia's capital city, 
Richmond, Virginia Common- 
wealth University traces its 
founding date to 1838. Today, 
VCU is an urban, public univer- 
sity enrolling nearly 20,000 
students on the Academic and 
Medical College of Virginia 
Campuses. 

VCU Magazine is produced 
three times a year by VCU 
Publications. The opinions 
expressed in VCU Magazine 
are those of the author and not 
necessarily those of VCU. 

Copyright c 1985 by Virginia 
Commonwealth University. 






An Equal Opporlunily/Aflifmalive AcIiOn University 



LIMITED 



EDITION 



D 



S C O U R S E 



HAIKU ART 



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Japan is as enigmatic as its language and as 
concrete as a microchip, juxtaposed to an 
ancient culture that imbues Japanese life 
even today is modern corporate manage- 
ment, savvy enough to have made Japan a 
world leader in industrial producti(m and 
technology and to have struck fear in the 
hearts of American car dealers across the 
land. Within the apparent contradiction lie 
many more: Japanese art and poetry, 
themselves, are both simple and complex, as 
is Japanese society today. 

This fall. Dr. Cliff Edwards, professor of 
religious studies, published Issa; The Story 
of a Poet-Priest (Macmillan Ltd.) in 
Tokyo. The book is about a famous Japa- 
nese Haiku poet who lived in the (tite 
eighteenth century. In English and Japa- 
nese, Edwards traces the life of Kobayashi 
Yataro, or Issa, around selections of his 
poetry, which covers every conceivable topic 
from thoughts on being a poet to reflections 
on snails and fleas, even "Great Buddha's 
Nose." Samples of Japanese Sumi art are 
included in the 56-page volume. 

"The Macmillan company sought me 
out," explains Edwards. "A Japanese 
scholar was traveling in Virginia and hap- 
pened to stop in the bookstore in the Virginia 
Museum. He bought a book I had un-itlen 
about Japanese nature mysticism. Every- 
thing Under Heaven. He took it home to 
Japan and showed it to his friends at Mac- 
millan. The rest, as they say, is history." 

Macmillan was looking specifically for a 
Japanese -English text on Haiku poetry that 
adult Japanese students could use to im- 
prove their English skills while studying 
about their history and cidture. "I wrote the 
book for that audience," says Edwards. "In 
fact, Macmillan gave me an English vocab- 
ulary list and instructed me to try to stay 
withm the limits of the list, so that we could 
avoid including a glossary. " 

Edwards' background in Japanese Haiku 
poetry began in 1971, when he lived at the 
Daitokuji Zen Monastery in Kyoto for two 



years and studied with a Japanese Haiku- 
Master. He also has studied and written 
extensively about Japanese history, culture, 
philosophy, and art. Among his recent 
publications is a chapter on Japanese poetry 
he contributed to Critical Survey of 
Poetry: Foreign Language Series (Salem 
Press, 1985), as well as an article "The 
Farthest East is the Farthest West" in the 
inaugural issue of Hsin: The International 
Journal of Philosophy and Psychology. 
"Right now, I'm halfway through writing a 
book on the influence of Japanese art and 
nature mysticism on Vincent van Gogh," 
says Edwards. "Van Gogh owned a huge 
collection of Japanese prints; once he shaved 
his head and, in his words, 'lived as a 
simple, Buddhist monk.' 

With the first copies of Issa this Septem- 
ber, Edwards also received comment from 
several Japanese reviewers. One noted the 
interesting irony with the publication of the 
text: while Japan is busy sending cars and 
technology to the United States, an Ameri- 
can has introduced the Japanese to their 
traditional values and culture. Another 
reviewer, Maruyama Shizuko, wrote, 
"Isn't it strange that many Japanese may 
get their introduction to a famous Japanese 
Haiku poet through the work of an Ameri- 
can. Perhaps we need more such cultural 
interchange to balance our technological 
interchange." 

Following are selections of the text, Issas 
poetry, and the work's illustration. 



Kobayashi Yataro — or Issa, as we know 
him — was born in a small mountain 
village in the middle of Japan in 1763. He 
often wrote about the deep snow and hard 
frost on his mountain farm. . . . 

When he was thirteen . . . Issa left his 
village and travelled to the city of Edo 
(Tokyo) to try and earn some money. The 



> -* - 




young hoy must have heen very lonely in 
the hig city. Perhaps he was thinking ot 
the grass and the gentle summer wind of 
his farm when he wrote this haiku after 
buying a fan made of grass one hot sum- 
mer day in the city; 

Ten cents worth, of grass 
Buys just that much wind 
In the hot weather. 

By the time he was twenty-four, Issa was 
studying haiku in the city of Edo under a 
famous poet named Chikua. He was a 
gtxid student, and when Chikua died three 
years later, Issa became new head of the 
haiku school. 

When he decided to become a wanderer, 
the young poet also decided to take a new 
name — 'Issa' — which means 'a cup of tea.' 
He chose this name, he tells us, because: 
"A wandering poet can't help being what 
he is, any more than a wave can help 
breaking on the beach. His time is short, 
like the life of the wave that disappears in 
a moment. So this poet calls himself, 
'Issa': 

A fresh New Year 

I change my name Yataro 

For 'A Cup of Tea. ' 

His haiku about snails and frogs, flies and 
fleas reflect his belief that all life is one. To 
Issa, we are most human when we can feel 
and understand the pleasure and pain and 
needs of earth's smallest and most easily 
forgotten creatures. 

The life of a snail — 

He goes to bed arid gets up 

Just the way he is. 



At night in my hut, 
Will all you jumping fleas 
Make a bit less noise? 

Once Issa got lost in the dark and the 
neighing of a horse in a farmyard close by 
helped him find his way again. Of course, 
he wrote a haiku about it: 

Through the cold night air 
The neighing of a horse 
Leads me to the outhouse. 

Issa knew that there is evil in the world, 
that humans can be bad and greedy. Here 
he describes life in five short words, and 
then shows us his meaning with two haiht 
poems: 

Life is short, desire endless. 

Lovely winds blow 

Through the kirge summer room. 

Not enough, we complain. 

Each morning farmers 
Stare greedily at their fields. 
Each loves just his own. 

It is impossible not to feel Issa's complete 
happiness in his one-year-old Sato. His 
love for tiny powerless creatures, his 
pleasure in children, all can be felt in the 
happiness his daughter brings him. 

"For myself," he writes, "1 am already so 
old that frost is in my hair, and every new 
year brings new lines, like waves, to my 
face. But 1 have never found such peace 
and understanding as she already has, and 
1 count my days and months a meaningless 
waste beside hers. 1 am ashamed of myself, 
to think that my tiny child of one year is 
closer to the tnith than 1 am." 



Issa's is a serious religion, but it is not a 
long-faced one. He could joke and smile 
even with Buddha. Viewing the huge 
Buddha in the city of Nara, he must have 
laughed at the scene that made him write 
this: 

The great Buddha's nose — 
Out of one nostril 
Flies a swallow. 

It was the seventh day of the seventh 
month in the Japanese year, and families 
had hung lights in the bamboo trees for 
the popular festival of Tanabata — a festival 
in which we remember the two stars, 
Altair and Vega. The story tells how an 
ordinary man from earth fell in love with 
a girl from heaven. They became the two 
stars, Altair and Vega, and Altair was 
allowed to cross the Milky Way to visit 
Vega only on the seventh night of the 
seventh month of each year. On that 
festival night, as his wife died, Issa, certain 
that his insect friends were sharing his 
sadness, wrote: 

Stop crying, insects. 
Lovers have so little time. 
Even among the stars. 

Five months before Issa's own final illness, 
his old farmhouse was burned to the 
grt)und. The old poet died as lonely and as 
poor as he had been when he was a 
motherless child. Under the pillow tif his 
bed, in an old outbuilding where he died 
in mid-winter, was found his last haiku: 

My firuil thcmk-you — 
The snow falling on my bed 
Is also from God. 

Reprinted /^^ perrmssum of /3r. Cliff Edwards. 



R 



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THE HOSPriAL 



SCHOOLHOUSE 



By David Mathis 



eggy Matthews, 18 
years old, has 
chronic gastroin- 
testinal problems 
and checks into 
the hospital 
periodically for 
treatment and 
therapy. Michael 
Charhat's face is swathed in bandages 
and connected to feeding tubes. The 
ten-year-old has undergone surgery to 
reconstruct part of his nose and face 
shattered in a car accident. Scott Young 
is seven years old and has just had a liver 
transplant. 

These children are not only hospital 
patients but also pupils in the Hospital 
Education Program at the Medical 
College of Virginia Hospitals. 

"We see all levels of intellectual 
ability, from the very bright to the 
profoundly retarded. We teach children 
whose problems range from simple bone 
fractures to leukemia and cystic fibrosis," 
says Marjorie Brownstein, curriculum/ 
program specialist. Brownstein supervises 
the teachers and coordinates teaching 
programs not t)nly at MCVH, home base 
for the program, but also at Children's 
Hospital of Richmond. 

The idea of teaching patients while 
hospitalized has been around since 
children have been admitted to hospitals 
and states have mandated public educa- 
tion for children, according to Cabell 
Luck, jr., directiir of the Hospital Educa- 
tion Program. A hospital teaching 




program began in the 1930s at MCVH, 
when polio and TB patients were seen in 
epidemic proportions. Back then, tutors 
visited children in the hospital mainly to 
ensure that they kept up with their 
home school assignments. Today, hospi- 
tal education programs have come a long 
way, at least in Virginia, which is a 
leader in providing education to pediat- 
ric and adolescent hospital patients. 

"Our program is among the most well- 
established in the country," comments 
Brownstein. "There are few programs 
organized to the extent that we are, with 
our diagnostic component. Most are still 
largely tutorial. We're not just tutors or 
substitutes. We're teachers in every sense 
of the word." 

The Virginia State Department of 
Education sponsors and funds the pro- 
gram in a cooperative arrangement with 
the Richmond City Public Schools. 
There are nine teachers at MCVH. Four 
work in pediatrics, which includes 
children aged 2-12. Two teachers work 
with teenagers on the adolescent medi- 
cine unit, and two on the adolescent 



psychiatry unit. An itinerant teacher 
serves the hospital's many special-care 
units; burn, kidney dialysis, intensive 
care, obstetrics, neurosurgical, research, 
rehabilitation medicine, head trauma, 
and chemical dependency. 

The program is free to patients. "The 
state has said that all children must 
receive free education," explains Brown- 
stein. "That includes children in the 
hospital. If they will be staying three or 
more days, we automatically enroll them 
in the program, and as inpatients the 
children continue to be counted as if 
in school. That way, they won't he 
penalized because of their hospital 
confinement." 

Currently, no specific training is 
required for teachers who choose a 
career in the hospital setting. However, 
the MCVH program has established that 
teachers must have three to five years of 
teaching experience, a graduate degree, 
and endorsement by the state in one or 
more areas of special education. 

The Hospital Education Program is 
represented on the Child Life Commit- 
tee of MCVH's Children's Medical 
Center. This means that the teachers 
become part of a multidisciplinary 
medical team that includes physicians, 
nurses, physical and occupational thera- 
pists, speech pathologists, social work- 
ers, and others. The extent of each 
teacher's involvement with the health 
care team varies depending on the 
condition and illness of the child. 



"Our teachers have to he astute 
medically as well as educationally," says 
Brownstein. "They must he ahle to spot 
prohlems in the learning process that 
might he related to a child's medical 
condition. That's why we meet with 
physicians and therapists at least once a 
week to go over cases, to provide our 
input and educational perspective. We 
could need to alert a social worker, tor 
instance, it a teacher suspects a child's 
stomach illness might be caused by home 
problems. These problems could mani- 
fest themselves by inadequate acquisition 
of skills or lack of interest in learning." 

Just as the teachers must he flexible in 
working around the children's medical 
schedules, they must also display the 
same level of flexibility in the subjects 
they teach and the kinds of children 
they see. "In the hospital, you don't get 
to pick whether you want to teach only 
math or English, or whether you'll work 
with gifted or retarded children. That's 
why we require teachers to have exten- 
sive backgrounds in both general and 
special education," explains Brownstein. 

Teacher/pupil ratios range from one- 
to-four in adolescent psychiatry to one- 
to-eight in pediatrics. A teenager may 
see as many as three teachers with 
backgrounds in high school math, 
science, and language. 

"We work pretty extensively with the 
teachers and guidance counselors in the 
school divisions. They need to know 
what they're dealing with, so we advise 
them of the child's condition, any 



medications being taken that might 
affect learning, and whether the child 
faces more hospital visits." One program 
that the teachers have become involved 
ip, explains Brownstein, is Child-Find. 
This state education program is designed 
to look for risk factors and problems in 
learning among preschoolers and school- 
aged children. Often hospital teachers 
will discover that a child's learning 
problems may be directly related to his 
or her medical condition and will be 
able to pass this information on to the 
school divisions. 

One special case illustrates the extent 
of the program's liaison services with the 
school districts. Michael Lacks, a ten- 
year-old, was severely burned in an 
accident. He was first admitted to the 
MCVH burn unit for nine weeks of 
trauma therapy, during which he contin- 
ued his schoolwork with his hospital 
teacher. He was then transferred to 
Children's Hospital tor additional reha- 
bilitation. There he continued to study 
through the MCVH education program. 

"His progress in his studies was good," 
recalls Brownstein. "The real problem 
was his disfigurement from the accident. 
We realized this would create major 
transition problems on the eventual day 
that he would recover sufficiently to 
return to his school." The Hospital 
Education Program made a videotape of 
the rehabilitation process and presented 
it to the faculty at Michael's school. 
Then a specially prepared program was 
presented to his classmates so that they. 





too, could get used to Michael's 
distigurement. 

"The shock of his physical appearance 
otherwise would have been traumatic, 
not just for Michael but for his teachers 
and classmates. That's the biggest liaison 
project we've undertaken thus tar; it was 
really successful," Brownstein reports. 

The teachers like to get involved in as 
many enrichment activities as possible 
with the children, in addition to provid- 
ing traditional education. Field trips to 
museums, historical sites, and the Rich- 
mond Symphony are frequent, as are 
excursions for pizza and hamburgers. 

Yet, the work can be difficult. "You 
come to work on Monday; by Tuesday a 
student you've been working with for 
months, sometimes years, has died. Or, 
you're watching the evening news and a 
story about a young accident victim is 
reported. You know that tumorrt)w you'll 
be meeting that very child," Brownstein 
says with a quiet pause. But when the 
teachers show up at the bedside, ready to 
teach, the children are reassured; they 
realize their education will be ongoing. 

"The fact that we're here, making sure 
a child's life isn't put on hold until the 
doctors are tinished, lends an air of 
normalcy to an otherwise often bewil- 
dering and painful experience. "C? 

David Mathis is director of VCU 
Publications. 

Photography by Chip Mitchell. 



-vjifefe %« 



Digitized by the Internet Archive 

in 2010 with funding from 

Lyrasis IVIembers and Sloan Foundation 



http://www.archive.org/details/vcumag142fall1985virg 



APATHY ANTl^MmSM, 
' AbsDAUTHORny 



T/ie /o/lowing art\c\& \i a ttvxevo o/ Hitler, 
Germany, and the "Jewish Question" t)> 
^arah. Gofiorx {Pxinctlon (Jnii'ersit^ Vre.ss, 
1984), w/iic/i appeared in the spring 1985 
issue o/ Menorah Review, the newsletter 
of VCU's ]udaic Studies Program. Re- 
printed by permission of Dr. Jack D. Spiro, 
editor and director of judaic Studies, and 
the author. 



By Joseph W. Bendersky 



j« . ^v^f 



rf-'w 



here are two 
common and 
disturbing myths 
about the "Jewish 
Question" in 
German history. 
The first is that 
jews played a 
detrimental role in 
German society by controlling important 
economic sectors and by manipulating 
public policy for their own benefit. The 
other myth is that Germans as a whole 
were violent anti-Semites who supported 
Hitler's persecutions. The latter is 
usually founded on the notion of a 
unique German "national character," 
with an element of historical deter- 
minism. It is as if the Nazis were merely 
the most extreme manifestation of some 
unchanging brutal German nature, as 
well as the culmination of patterns in 
German history that led only in this 
direction. 

If these perceptions are inaccurate, we 
are asked, then why were the Jews 
persecuted and why was it in Germany, 
not another nation, that the Holocaust 
occurred? Many find it difficult to be- 
lieve that millions would be systemati- 
cally murdered without at least some 
cause, or that genocide could have been 
instituted without popular knowledge 
and support. 

Many answers to these complex 
questions have been provided by 30 
years of prolific scholarship. Sarah 
Gordon's book. Hitler, Germany, and the 
"Jewish Question," however, is the first 
to synthesize part of this information 



into a general explanation of German 
reactions to anti-Semitism. With 
German-Jewish relations between 
1870 and 1945 as her focal point, she 
confronts these questions more directly 
and systematically than previous works. 
Since she uses other studies extensively, 
especially recent sociological and statisti- 
cal books on Weimar and Nazi Ger- 
many, many of her conclusions are not 
new, though the general reader and 
scholars unfamiliar with this abundant 
literature will probably be quite sur- 
prised. But she has also done a good deal 
of original research into previously 
unexploited archival sources, in particu- 
lar the gestapo files on opponents of Nazi 
racism, which provide significant new 
information and insights. 

In an overview of the period 1870 to 
1933, Gordon refutes the erroneous 
notions that Jews had "a strahglehold on 
the German economy," and that Ger- 
man cultural heritage was uniformly 
anti-Semitic. Although statistical data 
establish that Jews were more successful 
in many areas than non-Jews and pro- 
portionately overrepresented in specific 
professions, they never constituted a 
controlling force and remained isolated 
from the major industrial sectors that 
served as the basis of the German econ- 
omy. The visibility created by this 
success led to stereotyping and exploita- 
tion by anti-Semites, but before 1930 
anti-Semitic parties were total failures, 
and intellectual anti-Semitism was 
counterbalanced by the writings of 



prominent German cultural figures who 
rejected anti-Semitism. 

Pre-Nazi Germany was a period of 
complex social interaction and reaction, 
with the ambiguities presented by all real 
lite experiences. In the same era that 
vehement political anti-Semitism arose 
in Germany, a general climate of accep- 
tance, toleration, and progress also 
emerged, fostering assimilation, legal 
equality, and constitutional freedom. As 
Peter Gay, the renowned cultural histor- 
ian and author of Freud, Jews and Other 
Germans, stated, anti-Semitism was "a 
disease to which some Germans were 
susceptible, and others not — a disease, 
moreover, to which Germans seemed 
less susceptible than Russians or even 
Frenchmen." 

Despite sporadic upsurges of anti- 
Semitic sentiments in Weimar, parties of 
the political middle, along with Catholic 
and leftist parties, either opposed or 
remained neutral towards anti-Semitism, 
though occasionally their positions were 
ambiguous. Those conservative parties, 
which attempted to exploit anti- 
Semitism, continued to lose millions of 
voters. Essentially, Gordon agrees with 
Leonard Baker, biographer of the theolo- 
gian and Berlin's leading rabbi, Leo 
Baeck, that "the restrictions under 
which German Jews lived in the 1920s 
were little different from those Jews 
faced in the United States and England." 

Relying heavily on other historians in 
conjunction with her own data, Gordon 
provides substantial evidence that rabid 
anti-Semitism was not the norm for 
early Nazi leaders or pre- 1933 recruits. 
There was no uniform attitude toward 
the Jews among party members; many 
accepted anti-Semitism as part of the 
"baggage of Nazism — in the bargain for 
other things." And the mt)st extreme 
anti-Semites remained a min<.)rity within 
the NSDAP. Decisive, however, was 
that anti-Semitism constituted an intrin- 
sic part of Nazi ideology and the very 
foundation of Hitler's political and 
historical Welumschaming,. Thus, the 
rabid anti-Semites rose most quickly 
through the ranks into the highest 
positions of power from which they 
could later initiate their persecutions. 



The Nazis came to power as a minor- 
ity party against the opposition of a 
majority of the German people. In a free 
election, the Nazis never acquired more 
than 37 percent of the popular vote, and 
only a small minority of those who voted 
National Socialist did so because of anti- 
Semitism. To most Nazi voters, fear of 
Communism, political or economic self- 
interest, and the failures of Weimar were 
far more important. Vicious anti-Semitic 
propaganda left little doubt that the 
Nazis would pursue some anti-Semitic 
measures, but before the seizure of 
power, there existed among the general 
public no clear conception of specific 
Nazi goals regarding the Jews. Equally 
significant, however, was that Nazi anti- 
Semitism did not deter voters from 
casting their ballots for Hitler. And 
through their votes, these people gave 
the Nazis an opportunity to establish a 
dictatorship and eventually to initiate a 
program of genocide against the Jews of 
Europe. 

The goal of extermination emerged 
from Hitler's own mind as he was ob- 
sessed and driven by racial paranoia. 
Sometime between 1924 and 1936, 
Gordon argues. Hitler made the abstract 
decision to destroy European Jewry, but 
for reasons of domestic and foreign 
policy he moved gradually and deceit- 
fully. Although his intentions were 
revealed in speeches in the late 1930s 
and early 1940s, his reputation for lying, 
exaggeration, irrational outbursts, as 
well as the ambiguity in these statements 
themselves, led most Jews and Germans 
to disregard these ominous warnings and 
threats. Contrary to assertions by certain 
writers of popular histories, Gordon 
provides convincing evidence that "the 
actual deportations and exterminations 
were almost exclusively instigated by 
Hitler himself." 

Gordon also contends that most 
Germans reacted apathetically to Third 
Reich anti-Semitic propaganda and 
policies. This finding is consistent with 
what historians have long established 
about the Germans under Nazi rule. The 
image of a Germany completely mesmer- 
ized by a charismatic Hitler and Nazi 
propaganda, rallying enthusiastically 
behind the regime, is a myth. It is a 
fictitious paradigm created by the Nazis 
themselves, portraying reality as they 
wanted it to appear in direct contradic- 
tion to what even secret Nazi reports 
and surveys revealed about popular 



sentiments. While there were millions of 
true believers and enthusiasts, most 
Germans, out of fear, lack of courage, 
self-interest, or a sense of helplessness, 
withdrew into themselves. Their con- 
cerns remained limited to their families 
and close friends. Such apathy toward 
the Jewish Question, Gordon points out, 
is disturbing to those who espouse 
humanitarian ideals and interpretations 
about the goodness of man, but it was 
the reality nevertheless. 

The "Crystal Night" pogrom of 1938 
met with strong public disapproval across 
Germany; otherwise, the pattern was 
one of minority support for anti- 
Semitism and minority opposition, with 
most Germans remaining indifferent. A 
vocal minority, encouraged and assisted 
by the Nazi state, urged restrictive 
measures against Jews and later approved 
of deportations. On the other hand, a 
minority, at great personal risk, contin- 
ued to do business with Jews, violated 
strict Nazi racial laws, and aided or hid 
Jews. Some even engaged in organized 
public protests against deportations. The 
most active opponents of racial persecu- 
tion, according to Gordon's data, were 
older, middle-class men, whereas women 
and the younger generation tended to 
show higher levels of anti-Semitic 
attitudes. Gordon also documents resist- 
ance to Jewish persecution within the 
Nazi party itself, and among the police, 
judges, and bureaucrats. 

How could apathy prevail while 
millions were being gassed.' Part of the 
answer is that the exterminations were 
kept secret and, despite rumors, knowl- 
edge of genocide was not widespread. 
Most who heard rumors, Jews and non- 
Jews alike, dismissed these as truly 
unbelievable, even inconceivable. The 
crucial question, however, was never 
knowledge but whether one was pre- 
pared to act on this information. 
Against the power of the Nazi state and 
the ubiquity of the secret police, individ- 
ual resistance could only save the few, 
while millions perished at the hands of 
the Leviathan. Thousands were saved by 
heroism without slowing down the 
bureaucratic killing machine. 

European Jewry could only have been 
saved by overthrowing the Hitlerian 
state. This could have been realistically 
accomplished by organized institutional 



resistance, with the churches and army 
having potential for success. But both 
institutions were political and moral 
failures. Individual laymen and religious 
leaders protested or resisted; yet most 
churches remained silent or concerned 
themselves only with baptized Jews. The 
failure of the churches to take a public 
moral stand, let alone engage in resist- 
ance, is well known. Although Gordon 
holds that this was because of institu- 
tional self-interest rather than anti- 
Semitism, she adds that "religion, per se, 
was no antidote to anti-Semitism," since 
the data indicate that church-goers had 
a greater tendency toward anti-Semitism 
than those who were no longer regular 
attendants. 

The churches alone could not have 
brought down the regime, but the army 
possessed the organization and arms 
necessary for a successful coup. Al- 
though individual officers and small 
groups pursued this course, most never 
even entertained the idea. Very few 
condoned genocide, but anti-Semitism 
among some officers, careerism among 
others, and pressing wartime concerns 
led most to acquiesce, at times assist, in 
the exterminations. Unlike the average 
citizen, the army could have saved 
millions. Instead, institutional and 
personal self-interest prevailed over 
morality and human life. 

None of this was the inevitable result 
of German history, nor caused by some 
unique German psychology, national 
character, or "authoritarian personality." 
Gay was correct in stating, "To say that 
the Third Reich was grounded in the 
German past is true enough; to say that 
it was the inescapable result of that past, 
the only fruit that the German tree 
could grow is false." There could have 
been no genocide without the Nazi 
dictatorship and that regime was not 
inevitable. Until the very day of Hitler's 
appointment, different decisions by key 
political figures could have kept the 
Nazis from power. However, for the 
most part, normal individuals carried out 
or acquiesced in the exterminations. 



The Holocaust occurred in Germany 
because it was there that fanatical Nazis 
like Hitler, obsessed with racial hatred 
and a murderous historical mission, 
acquired dictatorial control over the 
omnipotent modern state and its popula- 
tion. Thus, Hitler became one of the 
few anti-Semites in history with both 
the determination and the power to turn 
his hatred into a violent reality. 

This by no means limits the guilt or 
responsibility to Hitler and the Nazis. 
Their policies could only have been 
instituted with the assistance or acquies- 
cence of others, especially the bureau- 
cracy and army. And what of the apa- 
thetic majority? If, on their own behalf, 
average Germans were unwilling or 
unable to resist the oppression, indigni- 
ties, and persecutions fostered by the 
Nazi state, is it really so surprising that 
so few risked their lives for the sake of 
the Jews.' This sad fact leaves the reader 
of this generally analytical and unemo- 
tional book with a definite sense of 
uneasiness. Gordon's conclusion about 
the implications of her study linger in 
the mmd long afterward: "Once the 
police and military are co-opted, possi- 
bilities for successful resistance are tew, 
and normal men, who by definition are 
not heroes, will compete for power 
without regard to the catastrophic effects 
of their immoral actions. Therein lies a 
tragedy of the human, and not only the 
German, condition. "C5 

Uiseph W. Bendersky, associate professor of 
history, is author of Carl Schmitt; 
Theorist for the Reich (Princeton, 1983) 
and A History of Nazi Germany 
(Chicago, J 984). 




The Judaic Studies Program, based in 
the Department of Philosophy and 
Religious Studies, has offered courses in 
Judaic history and religion since January 
1983. Directed by Dr. Jack D. Spiro, 
rabbi of Congregation Beth Ahabah in 
Richmond, students and members of the 
community have been able to learn 
about the Old Testament, Judaic philos- 
ophy and literature, and Judaism. 

In 1984 Judaic Studies was approved 
as a minor at the university. Students 
complete 1 8 credits in such courses as 
the Development of Jewish Thought, 
Modern Jewish Thought, History of the 
Jewish People, Introduction to the Old 
Testament, and Hebrew Prophets, 
among other related courses in history 
and religion. 

The rationale for approving Judaic 
Studies as a minor is simple: according 
to Spiro, religion is a dimension of life, 
and the academic study of religion is a 
well-developed humanistic discipline in 
its own right. In the last two decades. 
Judaic study has become recognized as a 
legitimate component of this discipline. 
According to Spiro, many reasons 
explain the growth of Judaic study: the 
acknowledgment of Hebrew as a living 
language, Judaism as an essential compo- 
nent of Western civilization, and a 
greater receptivity to ethnic studies in 
colleges and universities. The roots of 
Western culture and the major Western 
religions lie, in large part, in Jewish 
thought and culture. 

With the approval of Judaic Studies as 
a minor has come greater visibility for 
the program through its quarterly news- 
letter, Menorah Review, now entering its 
second year. Its readership includes the 
university, the Richmond community, 
an ecumenical community across the 
U.S., and an international audience of 
scholars and religious leaders. 



CULT FACTS 



AND HCnONS 



By David G. Bromley 

he early 1970s 
witnessed the 
emergence of a 
number of new 
religious move- 
ments, which have 
been more popu- 
larly termed 
"cults." These new 
religious groups, now familiar to even 
casual observers of the contemporary 
religious scene, include the Interna- 
tional Society for Krishna Consciousness 
(Hare Krishna), the Way International, 
the Children of God (renamed the 
Family of Love), the Divine Light 
Mission, the Church of Scientology, 
Transcendental Meditation, and, of 
course, the Unification Church, the 
group which has become virtually synony- 
mous with the term "cult" in the eye of 
the American public. 

Soon after the appearance of these 
new religious groups, a coalition of 
opposition, known as the Anti-Cult 
Movement, formed to combat cults and 
to extricate individual adherents from 
them. The ensuing struggle between the 
new religious movements and the Anti- 
Cult Movement has been filled with 
rhetorical charges and countercharges. 
Since most Americans have had little or 
no contact with these religious groups, 
public conceptions of them have been 
shaped largely by the media, which have 
reflected the Anti-Cult Movement's 
perspective. 

The anti-cult portrayal of "cults," 
however, is based on substantial misin- 
formation and stereotypes, designed to 
create a sufficient level of public fear and 
indignation to allow the implementation 
of the drastic countermeasures that anti- 
cultists advocate. There are several 
widely accepted components about the 
new religious groups that constitute an 



overall anti-cult mythology, and the 
implications of accepting this mythology 
are problematic. 

Common characteristics of cults. The 
crusade against cults is premised on the 
assumption that cults constitute a spe- 
cific, identifiable group that possesses a 
meaningful set of shared characteristics. 
Actually, these groups are extraordinar- 
ily diverse in terms of their origins and 
beliefs, control over members, and style 
of leadership. For example, ideologically 
the Church of Scientology is uniquely 
American in origin, the Unification 
Church represents a syncretic blend of 
Western Christianity and Oriental 
philosophy, while Hare Krishna and the 
Divine Light Mission find their origins 
solidly in Hindu tradition. 

The degree to which these groups 
exert control over members' lives varies 
from the rather low demand of such 
groups as Transcendental Meditation and 
Scientology, whose members live con- 
ventional lives and devote no more time 
to religious practice than do many other 
pious Americans, to high-demand 
groups, such as the Family of Love and 
the International Society for Krishna 
Consciousness, whose members live 
communally and devote full time to the 
group and its practices. In some cases, 
too, structural characteristics have 
changed over time. Lifestyles within the 
Divine Light Mission, for example, have 
varied from a relatively conventional, 
individual household style, to traditional 
communalism, to quasi-communal living 
arrangements that permit outside 
employment. 

While the spiritual leaders of the new 
religious groups present charismatic 
figures to their respective followers, the 
degree to which they personally direct 



10 



the lives of their adherents varies consid- 
erably. Most members of Scientology 
have never met or even seen L. Ron 
Hubbard, who recently has elected such 
total seclusion that rumors of his death 
persist, despite official church denials. 
Sun Myung Moon only occasionally 
appears at formal gatherings where 
followers catch but a fleeting glimpse of 
him. By contrast, gurus within Hare 
Krishna are able to exert greater influ- 
ence over their devotees by virtue of 
their frequent contact with them. Even 
so, the orthodoxy of individual gurus 
differs, contributing significantly to the 
level of strictness in temple spiritual 
regimen. 

In addition, not all of these leaders 
attempt to control the lives of their 
followers to the same degree. On the 
one hand, the Divine Light Mission at 
times has bordered on anarchy because 
the Guru Maharaj J i has refused to 
provide followers with direction. On the 
other hand, L. Ron Hubbard maintains 
rather tight control over the Scientology 
organization and, indirectly, over indi- 
vidual Scientologists through a maze of 
bureaucratic rules and regulations that 
would be the envy of any federal govern- 
ment agency. 

Cults as a new phenomenon. Anti-cult 
mythology has created the impression 
that cults constitute a new and unprece- 
dented menace to American society. 
However, the new religious groups that 
have become the focus of this contro- 
versy are neither as new nor as unique to 
American society as their opponents 
contend. In fact, new religious groups, 
far from being new to the American 
social landscape, have been one of its 
most perennial features. The best avail- 
able data indicate that currently in the 
United States there are some 900 
churches deriving from the Western 
Christian heritage and another 600 
religious groups from a variety of other 
traditions. Religious diversity and the 
flowering of new religious groups are 
actually one of the hallmarks of Ameri- 
can history. 

According to one observer, since the 
Second Great Awakening in the first 
decade of the nineteenth century, 
"revivals still sweep over the country 
every two or three decades. Each one 
seems to be preceded by several years of 



social and political unrest and change, 
followed by periods of relative social 
tranquility." From this perspective, the 
recent revitalization of religious interest 
in the U.S. is nothing more than the 
latest chapter in a long history of reli- 
gious resurgence and quiescence. While 
a disproportionate youthful interest in 
religion has been a noteworthy aspect of 
this latest upsurge, recent heightened 
religious activity has been much more 
broadly based and included an increase 
in the percent of the population report- 
ing church attendance, the pentacostal 
movement in mainline churches, rapid 
growth of conservative churches, the 
emergence of televangelism, and an 



Religious diversity and the 
flowering of new religious 
groups are actually one of 
the hallmarks of Ameri- 
can history. 



increasing politicization of the New 
Religious Right. 

Furthermore, the most recent cohort 
of new religious groups did not simply 
burst onto the American scene. Most 
had existed for some time and experi- 
enced growth only when sociocultural 
conditions in the seventies became more 
favorable. For example, the Children of 
God was simply one offshoot of the vital 
and diverse Jesus Movement of the late 
sixties; the Unification Church was 
established in Korea in 1954 and 
reached the U.S. in 1959, only to 
languish in relative obscurity until the 
early seventies; and, the Church of 
Scientology was founded in 1955 but did 
not experience rapid growth until some 
years later. Several Eastern groups, such 
as Hare Krishna and the Divine Light 
Mission, arrived in the U.S. in the late 
sixties and early seventies; but the 
catalyst for this Eastern transplantation 
was a combination of unrelated social 
factors, such as the widespread attraction 
to Eastern philosophy and religion 
beginning in the 1950s, the repeal of the 
Orientals Exclusion Act in 1965 (which 
permitted oriental immigration for the 
first time in several decades), a flow of 



war refugees from Southeast Asia, and 
conversions and marriages by servicemen 
during tours of duty in the Far East 
during the sixties. 

Cult growth as a menace. Anti-cult 
groups have given highly inflated esti- 
mates of new religious groups' member- 
ship sizes and growth rates. The public 
perception holds that many of these 
groups possess tens of thousands of 
members, with the total number of 
persons involved in these groups in the 
hundreds of thousands or even millions. 
In fact, most of these groups are quite 
small and never achieved substantial 
size. In recent years, many have grown 
slowly or declined, which has been 
particularly true of communally orga- 
nized groups. The Unification Church, 
for example, probably never had more 
than 7,500 members in the U.S., cur- 
rently is no more than half that size, and 
has recruited fewer than 100 new mem- 
bers in each of the last three years. 
Similarly, there now are at the most a 
few thousand members of the Divine 
Light Mission, probably fewer than 
2,000 members of Hare Krishna, and 
well under 1,000 members of the Family 
of Love in the U.S. A larger number of 
individuals have had some relationship 
with such groups as Transcendental 
Meditation and Scientology, but in 
general, the contact has been short-term 
and confined to instruction in medita- 
tion techniques or auditing procedures. 

Autocratic cult leadership. A variety of 
charges has been leveled against the 
leaders of new religious groups, most of 
which concern such matters as political 
involvement, accumulation of personal 
wealth, and an apparent taste for per- 
sonal and political power. These allega- 
tions imply that leaders of new religious 
groups are actually charlatans who 
founded their movements not to pursue 
spiritual goals but rather to serve as 
vehicles for their own wealth and power. 

With respect to the accuracy of these 
allegations, there is considerable varia- 
tion in the economic and political 
practices of leaders of new religious 
groups. Several have, indeed, accumu- 
lated substantial personal wealth, but 
lavish surroundings do not appear to be 
atypical of the lifestyles of religious 
leaders around the world. In fact, reli- 
gious followers often make personal 



12 



sacrifices so that their leaders can Mve in 
a fashion commensurate vvith their 
perceived spiritual status. 

The extent of wealth and the purposes 
to which it is put vary and seem to be 
related to the overall goals of the group. 
For example, Prabhupada, the spiritual 
leader of Hare Krishna, lived out his life 
as an ascetic monk. By contrast. Sun 
Myung Moon possesses considerable 
personal wealth as well as heading a 
sizeable economic empire stretching 
from Korea and Japan to the U.S. and 
South America. Still, Moon appears to 
be willing to use — and risk — it all to 
underwrite the Unification Church's 
religious agenda. Despite contentions 
that Moon has made vast sums of money 
from his various U.S. operations, the 
evidence is just the contrary. In recent 
years, related economic enterprises in 
America have been losing about $100 
million annually. Most of these losses 
have been suffered m public relations 
operations designed to disseminate 
broadly his religious and political point 
of view. While evidence of a fanatical 
pursuit of his religous agenda, it hardly 
makes a case for an unabashed quest tor 
wealth. 

The question of power is even more 
difficult to unravel. It seems clear that 
most of these leaders have not developed 
an overt political agenda. Again, the 
contrast between Pradhupada and Moon 
is instructive. The former eschewed such 
profane concerns, although he certainly 
expected that widespread acceptance of 
Hare Krishna would have beneficial 
consequences for life on a civic as well as 
personal level. Other meditative groups 
have similar expectations; Transcenden- 
tal Meditation has gone so far as to 
attempt to measure statistically the 
relationship between the extent of its 
meditative practices and the severity of a 
variety of social problems in cities across 
the U.S. By contrast, Moon's Unifica- 
tion Church has pursued a much more 
activist political agenda as an outgrowth 
of a belief that "fallen" institutions must 
be spiritually restored as a means of 
establishing the Kingdom of God on 
earth. In this respect, Unification 
Church rhetoric resembles that of the 
New Religious Right in America. Re- 
gardless, the record of Moon's political 



initiatives has been one of ineptness and 
failure. If he does possess political de- 
signs, recent history offers little hope 
that they will be realized. 

Apart from the actual diversity in 
pursuit of wealth and power, it is not 
particularly useful to evaluate the sincer- 
ity of religious leaders of any ilk on these 
bases. No doubt some of these leaders 
have taken advantage of their followers' 
trust in various circumstances, just as 
others have undoubtedly made substan- 
tial personal sacrifices for their respective 
movements. But, such concepts as 
intent and sincerity are elusive and 
subjective. A review of leadership in any 
major institution would yield a similar 



Piiblic concern about 
cults centers on allega- 
tions that individuab are 
being severely manipu- 
lated, are incapable of 
acting autonomously, and 
cannot make judgments 
independently. 



mixed bag of motives. Indeed it is not 
clear that leaders of new religious groups 
would compare unfavorably with a 
random sample of religious leaders 
throughout history. As in the case of 
evaluating past U.S. presidents, a bal- 
anced assessment of these leaders will 
occur only after the current controversy 
surrounding them subsides. 

Brainwashing of adherents. The most 
persistent and inflammatory charge 
against the new religious movements is 
that they employ coercive mind-control 
techniques to recruit and retain their 
members. In fact, this is the centerpiece 
of the anti-cult mythology, for it is 
brainwashing that is presumed to be the 
most important and pervasive character- 
istic of cults. 

Public concern about cults centers on 
allegations that individuals are being 
severely manipulated, are incapable of 
acting autonomously, and cannot make 
judgments independently. Without this 



vital element in the mythology, there 
would he much less alarm and re- 
pugnance over the growth of new reli- 
gious groups, personal exploitation of 
members, or the power and wealth of 
gurus, and, correspondingly, much less 
public support for legal and extra-legal 
measures to combat cults. Interestingly, 
there is much prime facie evidence 
against the brainwashing allegation. 

Anti-cultists have drawn heavily on 
the experience of American POWs in 
Korea and China, where the concept of 
brainwashing was born. The term 
"brainwashing" is actually a misleading 
translation of the Chinese hsi nao, which 
may be more accurately conveyed as "to 
cleanse the mind." The actual results of 
techniques used on American POWs 
bely claims of extraordinary capabilities 
to destroy or alter personalities. Some 
3,500 Americans were held prisoner in 
North Korea and China during the 
Korean War and were frequently con- 
fined under the harshest of conditions. 
Their captors possessed control over 
virtually every aspect of their existence 
for months and sometimes years. Despite 
this totalitarian control, of the 3,500 
Americans imprisoned, only 50 made 
pro-Communist statements under duress 
and only 25 refused repatriation at the 
end of the war. This is hardly impressive 
evidence of an extraordinary capacity for 
influence; yet, based on assumptions 
about brainwashing during the Korean 
War, anti-cultists contend that, even 
without total environmental control, 
cults are able to destroy completely the 
free will of youthful converts in a matter 
of days or weeks. 

Because anti-cultists begin with the 
assumption that "cult" constitutes a 
logically coherent category and has 
mind-control techniques as its single 
most definitive characteristic, whatever 
recruitment and socialization techniques 
new religious groups employ become, by 
definition, unique, nefarious, and ma- 
nipulative. The deleterious conse- 
quences for adherents, anti-cultists aver, 
are the same, whether an individual 
engages in Scientology auditing, chants 
Hare Krishna, attends Unification 
evangelism camp, or seeks enlighten- 
ment through meditation in the Divine 



13 



Light Mission or Transcendental Medita- 
tion. In essence, their reasoning hack- 
ward from their conclusion results in 
automatic condemnation ot these 
methods simply hecause adherents were 
persuaded hy them. Difterentiating 
"cults" from other groups and charac- 
terizing them hy mind-control allow 
anti-cultists to deny widely acknowl- 
edged parallels hetween conversion 
techniques employed hy new religious 
groups and role transition processes and 
personal transformation methods used hy 
a variety of other religious and nonreli- 
gious organizations, including convents 
and monasteries, communes, military 
academies, and therapy groups. 

If cults have access to esoteric mind- 
control techniques, their success in 
recruitment should he relatively high. 
Virtually all empirical research on the 
subject reveals the contrary; despite 
intense proselytization hy some of these 
groups, conversion rates are modest at 
best. Studies of recruitment to the 
Unification Church, for example, indi- 
cate that well under 1 percent of rhose 
approached hy evangelizing teams ever 
join. Corroboration of this lack of 
recruitment success is clear in that most 
of the new religious movements have 
never achieved substantial size. 

Just as recruitment rates should be 
high if coercive mind-control techniques 
are effective, so should detection rates 
be low. Again, the evidence shows 
precisely the opposite. New religious 
groups have remained small because of 
both their limited recruitment success 
and limited retention success. Defections 
begin soon after recruitment, and most 
members have left after two or three 
years. It appears that defection rates are 
on the order of at least 20 percent per 
year, a figure consistent with the re- 
ported record of communal groups 
in general. 

Explaining conversion to new reli- 
gious groups as a direct result of brain- 
washing assumes that affiliation is largely 
involuntary and, hence, determined 
primarily by the group or its leaders 
rather than the potential convert. 
Participant observation research on the 
affiliation process, however, indicates 



that converts play an active part in their 
own conversion and often experiment 
with membership by adopting the mem- 
ber role on a trial basis. Again, depro- 
gramming — the anti-cult prescribed 
remedy for brainwashing — assumes that 
individuals are incapable of breaking 
away from cultic groups. Social scientists 
who have studied the disaffiliation 
process, however, find that it is typically 
gradual and precipitated by factors such 
as a breakdown in insulation from the 
outside world, failure of the groups to 
achieve their goals, and inconsistencies 
hetween leaders' actions and ideals. 

Mind control, therefore, is presumably 
a generic process that should operate 



If cults have access to 
esoteric mind-control 
techniques, their success 
in recruitment should be 
relatively high. Virtually 
all empirical research on 
the subject reveals the 
contrary. 



with equal effectiveness on all individ- 
uals, or at least randomly and in a high 
proportion ot cases. One of the most 
striking characteristics of new religious 
movements, of course, is the youthful 
nature of their members. Virtually all 
converts are between the ages ot 18 and 
25. The allegations of cultic mind 
control simply do not square well with 
the narrow age range of individuals who 
seem susceptible to its effects. Further, 
in recent years recruitment even among 
this age group has been declining. 

If cults really are pseudo-religious 
groups designed to exploit the naivete 
and idealism of American youth for the 
power and profit of unscrupulous gurus, 
there seems little doubt that cult leaders 
would use their ability to manipulate 
followers to create docile compliance. 
However, the record reveals otherwise. 
Rivalry and animosity between East and 
West Coast branches of the Unification 
Church are legendary, and there have 



been several cases in which Scientolo- 
gists have defied L. Ron Hubbard by 
leaving the group and starting their own 
competing organizations. When Moses 
David Berg, spiritual leader of the 
Family of Love, attempted to convince 
female members to become "hookers for 
Christ" in order to lure male converts, a 
substantial proportion of his followers 
deserted him. The Divine Light Mis- 
sion's Guru Maharaj Ji had a similar 
experience when he preached celibacy 
but decided to marry his secretary. Close 
observers of all the major new religious 
groups report that conflict and schism 
are endemic to these groups, despite the 
best attempts of leaders to keep their 
followers in line. 

Claims of members as "robots" or 
"automatons," incapable ot making even 
the simplest decisions for themselves, are 
inconsistent with the actual behavior of 
members. The major groups all have 
members coordinating their legal staffs, 
public relations offices, accounting 
departments, computerized recordkeep- 
ing systems, and diversified business 
enterprises. In addition, many members 
of these groups attend colleges and 
graduate schools around the country as 
well as engage in nonchurch-related 
employment. Performance of such 
multifarious, sophisticated functions 
belies contentions that members are 
unable to conduct their own affairs. 

Finally, a number of these new reli- 
gious groups, such as the Unification 
Church, Hare Krishna, and Scientology, 
have been the objects of intensive social 
science research for a number of years. 
Much of this research has involved 
participant observation methods, placing 
researchers in close contact with these 
groups for extended periods of time. 
While some of these researchers have 
criticized the groups they studied on a 
number of levels, virtually none of them 
observed or reported findings of brain- 
washing and mind control. Nor have 



14 



studies of the mental health of con- 
verts — except those conducted by Anti- 
Cult Movement associated clinicians — 
reported any consistent pattern of 
deleterious effects from group-induced 
pathology. 

The origins of the anti-cult mythology 
can be traced readily to the families of 
adherents of new religious groups. 
Parents of these converts were under- 
standably concerned when their sons 
and daughters distanced themselves from 
family and friends, laying aside educa- 
tional, career, and domestic plans and 
adopting new lifestyles and commit- 
ments. Despite the fact that these 



[Anti-cult] myths deflect 
attention away from the 
real sociocultural factors 
that make alternative 
realities and alternative 
social arrangemems 
attractive. 



changes took place during a period of life 
typified by idealism and rebellion, many 
families concluded that their offspring 
would never have made such choices of 
their own volition. Reasoning from 
effect to cause, parents determined that 
something had been done to their 
children. From this point, it was a 
relatively short step to the brainwashing 
thesis. The other elements of anti-cult 
mythology followed in due course to 
form a consistent, coherent context for 
the mind-control allegations. 

In terms of social repercussions, the 
problem arose when these private 
troubles were made public issues. It was 
in the process of creating an ideological 



and organizational basis for public action 
that anti-cult mythology was con- 
structed. To gain public support and 
access to public sanctions, it was not 
enough that family expectations and 
relationships had been breached; a 
threat to the public order was required. 
Anti-cult mythology, in essence, offered 
a conspiracy theory, which defines the 
source ot the threat ("cults"), identifies 
the conspirators (malevolent gurus), 
provides a motive (power and wealth), 
and offers evidence of an imminent 
danger (the number, growth, and size of 
cultic groups). 

Several unfortunate consequences 
have resulted from the creation of this 
mythology. First, the myths deflect 
attention away from the real socio- 
cultural factors that make alternative 
realities and alternative social arrange- 
ments attractive. Youthful adherents 
were drawn to — not coerced by — these 
alternatives. Substituting the subversion 
theory for concrete social analysis too 
conveniently obscures this fact. Second, 
the metaphors supporting the mythology 
have been too easily reified: after all, 
brains have not been washed; rather, 
individuals have adopted new symbolic 
contexts within which to relate to 
themselves and to others. Malevolent 
gurus have not conspired against us; 
rather, inadequacies in conventional 
socially-constructed reality have pro- 
voked the alternatives of the new reli- 
gious groups. Once treated as reality, 
myths trigger overreactions against 
individuals and against a broad spectrum 
of loosely related groups, and include 
deprogramming and "anti-cult" 
legislation. 

Finally, the lure and power of the new 
religious groups have been exaggerated. 
The most telling critique of these groups 
is not that they capture and enslave 
innocent youth but that they ultimately 
have not been able to provide the 
answers they had hoped for and that 
they are failing to produce meaningful 
social change, either by their own 
standards or those of conventional 
society. Certainly, some adherents have 
carved out meaningful lives for them- 
selves in these groups, but this is not the 
kind of lofty dream likely to draw the 
aspiration and commitment of American 
youth. S 



David G. Bromley, professor arui chairman 
of the Department of Sociology and 
Anthropology, has studied and written 
extensively about cults in America, 
including Moonies in America: Cult, 
Church and Crusade (with Anson Shupe) ; 
The New Vigilantes: Deprogrammers, 
Anti-Cultists and the New Religions 
(with Anson Shupe); and The 
Brainwashing/Deprogramming 
Controversy: Sociological, 
Psychological, Legal and Historical 
Perspectives (with]ames 
Richardson). 

Photography by Dennis McWaters. 



15 



CURING 



ABAD NIGHTS SLEEP 



By Lisa Antonelli 



or two years, 
Jeffrey N., the 
owner of a family- 
run hardware 
store, had experi- 
enced increasing 
difficulty in sleep- 
ing. At the age of 
40, his sleeping 
patterns had degenerated to the point 
where he was sleeping for an hour, then 
lying awake for three or four, all night 
long. During the few hours that he slept, 
he was tormented hy bad dreams. In the 
past six months, he had lost 20 pounds, 
and interest in work, sex, and hobbies 
declined. His weekends were spent 
sitting despondently in front of the 
television. He claimed that he was too 
stressed to continue running the busi- 
ness, that he wanted to sell the store and 
find a different form of employment. His 
wife's frustration at his deepening de- 
spondency led to threats of divorce. 

Sleep disorders, as Jeffrey learned, can 
drastically and detrimentally affect 
everyday life. At some point, nearly 
everyone suffers from some transient 
form of a sleep disorder, but 30 percent 
of the American population suffers from 
severe sleep disorders. When any abnor- 
mal pattern extends nightly, or daily in 
case of daytime sleepiness, for three 
weeks or more, it is considered persistent 
and should be treated. The effects are 
pervasive: problems in work perform- 
ance, interpersonal relationships, and 
common daily functioning eventually 
begin to surface — all due to abnormal 
sleep patterns. 

Through a friend, Jeffrey learned of 
the Medical College of Virginia Hospi- 
tals' Sleep Disorders Center, a referral 
center that assists in the diagnosis and 
treatment of patients with a wide range 



of sleep disorders. Evaluation showed 
that he was suffering from insomnia 
caused by depression. One of the cen- 
ter's physicians specially trained in the 
field of sleep-related problems prescribed 
an anti-depressant drug. Within a 
month, he was sleeping normally at 
night, functioning normally during the 
day. His marriage improved and work- 
related problems disappeared. 

Sleep disorders can be broken down 
into two areas: excessive daytime sleepi- 
ness and sleeplessness. Normal activity 
suffers, which in some cases exacerbates 
the sleep disorder and, in turn, problems 
in day-to-day functioning. In extreme 
cases, sleep disorders can be life threat- 
ening. Sufferers of excessive daytime 
sleepiness, for instance, can fall asleep 
while eating or driving. People suffering 
from apnea, a frequent cause of excessive 
somnulence, can experience high blood 
pressure or heart failure. 

"Excessive daytime sleepiness caused 
by apnea or narcolepsy is 100 percent 
biological in nature," explains Dr. 
Joseph A. Kwentus, the center's medical 
director. Sleeplessness can be traced to 
mood disorders, sleep habit problems, 
substance abuse, nocturnal myoclonus 
(jerking movements of the legs), or 
"restless legs," a crawling sensation in 
the legs which is relieved by getting out 
of bed. Over a period of time, all can 
have serious detrimental effects that can 
pervade all areas of everyday life. 

Since opening in July 1984, nearly 
400 patients have been evaluated and 
treated at the center's two locations in 
MCVH and McGuire VA Hospital. The 
Sleep Disorders Center is the only one of 
its kind in the state in its ability to 
conduct research and to deal with all 
types of sleep disorders. Facilities at both 



16 



locations are equipped to evaluate two 
patients per night. At MCVH, the 
clinic operates six nights a week while 
McGuire's clinic operates five. 

The standard evaluation entails 
monitoring patients on two consecutive 
nights. Patients suffering from excessive 
daytime sleepiness also are monitored 
through the intervening day. Each room 
is equipped with a telephone, a double 
bed, a television, magazines, and a video 
monitor. "We try to make it as homey as 
possible," says supervisor Jean Sicola. 

"During the day, patients are given 
five opportunities to nap," she explains. 
"From this, we can determine their 
Sleepiness Index: how fast they go to 
sleep and how deeply they sleep." 

Under normal sleep patterns, there 
are four stages, the first of which is light 
sleep or drowsiness that occurs within 
ten to 15 minutes of retiring. The 
second stage defines the onset of sleep. 
"In the third and fourth stages, which 
occur during the first third of the night, 
the restorative phases occur," explains 
Kwentus. "Proteins are snythesized, 
hormones are secreted. It's difficult to 
arouse a sleeper in these stages." A 
separate stage of sleep — REM (Rapid Eye 
Movement) sleep — is dream sleep. The 
REM cycle is repeated throughout the 
night at 90-minute intervals. "If you 
repeatedly disrupt the sleep cycle," says 
Kwentus, "problems in daytime perform- 
ance follow." 

Throughout the evaluation, patients 
are connected to various painless instru- 
ments that provide constant monitoring 
of eye movements, brain waves, muscle 
tone, heart activity, the behavior of leg 
muscles, nose and mouth air flow, 
oxygen level in the blood, and upper 
chest and lower abdomen respiratory air 
channels. Data from each nightly test 
stacks up to about five inches of paper 
per patient. Within two days following 
the evaluation, the exact disorder is 
determined. Once diagnosed, treatment 
in the form of medication, mechanical 
devices, surgery, behavior therapy, 
psychotherapy, sleep education, or sleep 
hygiene is prescribed. 



"Patients are then referred back to 
their own physician if the physician can 
handle the problem," says Sicola, or 
their case is turned over to one of the 
center's staff specialists in neurology, 
otolaryngology, urology, general surgery, 
psychiatry, psychology, or pulmonary 
problems. 

Joseph S. , a traveling equipment 
salesman, had been overweight all his 
life, but in the last six months he had 
put on 25 pounds. His marriage was 
good although his wife had moved to 
another bedroom to get away from his 
snoring. 

Her sleep had continued to be inter- 
rupted, however. When she failed to 
hear his snoring from the other room for 
periods of a minute or two, she was 
compelled to get up and check on him 
for fear that he had stopped breathing. 
Five to ten times each night, she awoke, 
went to his bedroom, and rolled him 
over until he began breathing — and 
snoring — again. 

During the day, he was excessively 
sleepy and found it difficult to stay 
awake. His doctor tested his blood 
pressure, found that it was high, and 
prescribed an appropriate drug. The 
sleepiness persisted. Another consulta- 
tion with a doctor suggested that he 
might suffer from hypoglycemia. He 
found that he could not stay on a diet. 
For five years, sleepiness continued to 
affect his normal activity. 

While on a business trip in New York, 
he read a newspaper article on sleep 
apnea. When he returned to Richmond, 
he made an appointment at the Sleep 
Disorders Center. Evaluation showed 
that he had a partial blockage that 
interfered with his breathing. His choice 
was to have surgery to remove the 
blockage or to sleep with a device called 
a Continuous Positive Airway Pressure 
that stabilizes breathing. He opted for 
the device. "Most do," says Kwentus. 
"It's not romantic, but the spouses 
usually come back to bed." 

Apnea is invariably due to a biological 
irregularity, either a blockage or some 
respiratory problem that is usually easily 
solved upon diagnosis. But neglect can 
lead to hypertension, sexual dysfunc- 
tion, even heart failure. While apnea is 
characterized by successive awakenings 
(a gasp for air, a sudden loud snore, or a 
choking sensation), it is categorized by 
excessive daytime sleepiness because the 



patient perceives that he or she is exces- 
sively sleepy during the day rather than 
lacking sleep at night. "They'll all tell 
you that they go to sleep in a second," 
says Kwentus. "Actually, they wake up 
as many as 300 times a night even 
though they only remember about five." 
Confusion upon awakening, headaches, 
depression, and appetite changes are just 
a few of the byproducts of sleep apnea. 
Male apnea sufferers outnumber female 
sufferers 20 to one. The reason is only 
speculative, but Kwentus believes that it 
might be tied to the positive effects of 
progesterone on fat distribution in a 
woman's throat. 

While excessive daytime sleepiness 
accounts for only 7 percent of all sleep 
disorder sufferers, it accounts for the 
bulk of the patient load at the MCVH 
center. "Sleepiness is what gets people 
into trouble," says Kwentus, "into life 
threatening or, at the least, stressful 
situations. It has the most profound 
impact because it can result in memory 
loss, lack of concentration, irritability. 
A number of people come here after 
being suspended from work for sleeping 
on the job." 

Martha K. had been sleepy ever since 
she could remember. In school, teachers 
had scolded her for sleeping at her desk. 
Now, at 60, her family was calling her 
senile. Sometimes at dinner, she would 
fall asleep in the middle of a story and 
wind up falling in her plate. 

When she slept, she had vivid dreams 
with characters so real that they didn't 
seem like dream figures at all. Many 
times, she felt and saw a demon sitting 
on her chest, refusing to allow her out 
of bed. 

Martha was suffering from narcolepsy, 
a condition whereby the sufferer experi- 
ences REM sleep at inappropriate times. 
Narcoleptics characteristically fall into 
REM sleep within ten minutes of falling 
asleep, while REM sleep occurs after 90 
minutes in normal sleep patterns, ac- 
cording to Sicola. The sufferer might 
experience hypnogogic hallucinations, 
sometimes horrific in content, much like 
a dream being played out in reality. The 
sufferer also might experience sleep 
paralysis — an intense sensation of being 



18 



unable to move — as Martha experienced 
when she visualized the demon on her 
chest. Only one in 10,000 people are 
narcoleptic but, notes Kwentus, "Obvi- 
ously, they can be extremely dangerous if 
they fall asleep while driving." 

Martha was prescribed a stimulant, 
protryptiline, which kept her awake 
during the day and eliminated the 
bad dreams. 

As illustrated in the case ot Jefftey N., 
the effects of sleeplessness are not always 
as physically dangerous as those caused 
by excessive sleepiness, but they can 
interfere significantly with any or all 
areas of one's life through such side 
effects as irritability, lack ot concentra- 
tion, and depression. 

Kwentus also has treated patients for 
restless legs and nocturnal myoclonus. 
But a latge number of people suffer from 
sleep disorders that are simply due to 
problematic sleep habits. Some are 
brought on by shift work, which upsets 
the natural Circadian or biological 
clock. "Shift work will mess up almost 
everybody," says Kwentus. "It's just a 
matter of degree." In those instances, 
Kwentus often educates the sufferer in 
sleep hygiene, which boils down to a list 
of fules. "First," says Kwentus, "we tell 
them not to do anything in bed except 
sleep and have sex. No reading, no 
eating, no interruptions." Sleep hygiene 
also discourages daytime naps and en- 
courages a regular bedtime. 

Some problematic sleep habits, how- 
ever, are psychophysiologically rooted. 
Carl F. had had difficulty falling asleep 
since childhood. Every night after 
retiring, it was literally hours before he 
drifted into sleep. Ovet the years, he 
noticed that his inability to fall asleep at 
night was intensified during stress pe- 
riods, that his houfs of lying awake in 
bed were spent worrying about any and 
everything. In college, he started going 
to bed at 9 pm, believing that the eatliet 
he went to bed, the earlier he would fall 
asleep. Regardless of early bedtimes, it 
was still the early morning hours before 
he drifted from worry tc5 sleep. As an 
attorney in a high-powered law firm, he 
found that nearly every night stress 
made sleep even more difficult. When 
work problems increased, he slept only a 
few hours a night. His doctor prescribed 
a sleeping pill; within a short period, he 
couldn't sleep at all without the 
medication. 



"When he came here, he was worried 
that he was addicted," Kwentus recalls. 
Kwentus instructed the patient to stop 
taking the pills for two weeks before 
coming for tests. "The first week, he had 
the worst sleeping priiblems ever. He 
even had to take oft from work. The 
second week was bettet. When we 
monitored him, we found that his sleep 
patterns were normal." 

Thorough evaluation through consul- 
tation revealed that Carl's childhood 
had been troubled by argumentative 
parents. "Every night when he went to 
bed, he was frightened," says Kwentus. 
"Even though his parents were in an- 
other room, he went to sleep every night 
to the sounds of their fighting." Kwen- 
tus's diagnosis noted that the patient's 
problem was rooted in a conditioned 
tesponse begun in childhood. In stress 
times, the worrying response was trig- 
gered and precluded normal sleep. "We 
determined that his problem could be 
helped by changing his sleeping environ- 
ment. His sleep has improved, though 
he still comes in for a recharge from time 
to time." 

The full series of tests at the center 
costs approy'mately $1,200. Testing tor 
only two consecutive nights runs approx- 
imately $900. "But sometimes we can 
determine the problem simply through 
history rathet than through testing," says 
Kwentus. Treatment and counseling are 
then administered. 

While poor daytime performance and 
personal problems are not always attrib- 
utable to sleep problems, they are readily 
noticeable side effects of sleep disorders. 
When physicians' examinations fail to 
reveal a conclusive source of problems, 
often exploring the possibility that the 
patient is suftering from a sleep disorder 
is worth the effort. For some patients, 
relieving a sleep disorder can even he 
a lifesaver. ?5 

Lisa Anionelli is a freelance UTiter in the 
Richmond area. 

Illustration by Kelly Alder. 



19 



U N I V 



R 



I T Y 



N 



T H 



N 



W 



Enrollment profile 

There are 19,730 students en- 
rolled at VCU, according to 
preliminary data of a University 
Enrollment Services fall 1985 
census. Of that number, 16,865 
students are in Academic Cam- 
pus programs. 

Total undergraduate enroll- 
ment is 11,367, vi^ith 10,405 under- 
graduates enrolled on the Aca- 
demic Campus. Graduate 
students number 3,078 with 2,338 
Academic Campus graduate 
students. A total of 1,048 first- 
professionals study on the MCV 
Campus. Special undergradu- 
ates number 3,178 and special 
graduates 1 ,064, on both cam- 
puses. Of the 19,730 students, 
5,123 are taking evening classes, 
and 668 study off-campus. Full- 
time enrollment on both cam- 
puses is 11,720. 

The College of Humanities and 
Sciences has the largest number 
of students at 4,386 undergradu- 
ate and graduate students. The 
School of Business is the second 
largest with 3,951 on both levels. 
The largest enrollment by school 
on the MCV Campus is 708 
students in the School of Medi- 
cine. The School of Social Work 
enjoyed the greatest increase in 
its enrollment according to the 
1985 figures, with 643 students 
this fall as compared to 571 lost 
fall, or a 12.6 percent increase. 

In fall 1984, 19,875 students 
were enrolled at the university. 

Fall changes at VCU 

Thousands of students returned in 
August to classes and to several 
physical and organizational 
changes on both campuses: 

• Ground was broken this fall 
for a new academic building to 
be located on Main Street be- 
tween Cherry and Linden Streets. 
It will house the School of Mass 
Communications and the De- 
partments of Biology, Mathemat- 
ics, and Chemistry. Completion is 
expected in 1987. 

• Art studio areas are now 
available in Rhoads Hall, provid- 
ing work and living space for 
visual arts students. 

• Classrooms have been 
renovated in the Hibbs Building, 
George Ben Johnson Auditorium, 
the Life Sciences Building, Frank- 
lin Terrace, Oliver Hall, the Lyons 
Building, the Nursing Education 
Building, and Sanger Hall. The 
Franklin Street Gymnasium also 
has been refurbished. 



• The Academic Campus 
bookstore in the basement of the 
Hibbs Building has been ex- 
panded to include part of the 
first floor of Hibbs. When com- 
pleted this December, the book- 
store will be nearly double its 
former size. 

• This fall, a new "college- 
within-the-college" program was 
instituted for freshmen. Designed 
to minimize feelings of isolation in 
a large university, the program, 
based in the College of Humani- 
ties and Sciences, enables se- 
lected students to take many of 
their classes together, form study 
groups, and become part of 
small academic communities. 

• In the area of student activi- 
ties, a number of public aware- 
ness forums have been planned 
to bring students and members 
of the community together in a 
dialogue about political and 
social issues. 

• Intramural sports has been 
expanded to increase interac- 
tion between Academic Cam- 
pus and MCV Campus students. 



Best emergency care 

MCV Hospitals was designated 
as one of the 19 leading trauma 
centers in the United States in an 
article published in the July 1985 
issue of Reader's Digest. 

A trauma center is an emer- 
gency department equipped to 
deal with the most serious injuries 
round-the-clock. Only 50 exist in 
the U.S. According to the article, 
MCVH was designated one of 
the best by a team of trauma 
experts on the basis of its record 
in caring for patients and the 
resources it commits to treating 
the injured. 

MCVH is the fourth largest 
teaching health care complex in 
the country; its emergency room 
is the largest. 



Instruction on the tube 

Beginning in the fall, VCU offered 
an expanded schedule of tele- 
courses that allow students to 
watch television in place of 
going to class. This fall, students 
are enrolled in such telecourses 
as Vietnam: A Television History, 
Focus-Voyage: Challenge and 
Change in Career/Life Planning; 
Overview of Alcoholism and 
Drug Abuse — Loosening the 
Grip; and Piano for Dropouts. 
Telecourses consist of video- 
taped lectures and materials 
that can be viewed in a school's 



library, such as Cabell or 
Tompkins McCaw, or at home 
over local educational television 
and public cable networks. 
Students then meet with instruc- 
tors for follow-up discussions, 
usually five or six times a semes- 
ter, in the evenings or on 
weekends. 

Content, requirements, assign- 
ments, evaluation, and credits 
for telecourses compare to 
courses taught traditionally in the 
classroom. According to Richard 
Alekna, VCU's director of media 
instruction, many adults have 
obligations that interfere with 
their ability to take a regular 
schedule of classes. Current 
technology, he notes, is allowing 
universities to offer quality edu- 
cation at the convenience of 
the student. 

New posts and 
promotions 

Several vacancies have been 
filled over the summer by the 
VCU Board of Visitors. New- 
comers include the following: 

• Replacing Dr Jesse Steinfield 
as dean of the School of Medi- 
cine is Dr Stephen M. Ayres. 
Ayres comes from Missouri where 
he served as professor and 
chairman of the Department of 
Internal Medicine at St. Louis 
University and medical director 
of St. Louis University Hospitals. 

• Dr Steven J. Danish, formerly 
professor of psychology at Penn- 
sylvania State University, is now 
professor and chairman of the 
Department of Psychology. 

• Dr. John DeLorenzo has been 
appointed professor and chair- 
man of the Department of Neu- 
rology in the School of Medicine. 
DeLorenzo comes from the Yale 
University School of Medicine 
where he was associate profes- 
sor of neurology. 

• Dr Frederick W. Heiss has 
been named chairman of the 
Department of Public Administra- 
tion in the School of Community 
and Public Affairs. Heiss came 
from the University of Colorado 
where he was associate profes- 
sor of public affairs. He also 
served for 12 years as director of 
the Denver Urban Observatory. 

• Dr Lindsay M. Hunt, Jr., has 
assumed the position of dean of 
the School of Dentistn/. Hunt 
formerly was professor and chair- 
man of the Department of Oral 



Biology in the School of Dentistry 
at Emory University. 

• Dr. Gary T Johnson has been 
appointed director of the Center 
for Public Affairs and assistant 
dean of the School of Commu- 
nity and Public Affairs. Formerly 
on the University of Virginia fac- 
ulty, Johnson is a specialist in the 
fields of housing, governmental 
finance, planning, and career 
development for public sector 
professionals. 

• Dr Anton C. Schoolwerth is 
the new chairman of the Neph- 
rology Division of the School of 
Medicine. Schoolwerth come 
from Hershey, Pennsylvania, 
where he was chief of the renal 
and electrolyte division and 
medical director of the hemo- 
dialysis unit at Pennsylvania State 
University's Milton S. Hershey 
Medical Center 

Promotions include the 
following: 

• Dr Paul Dvorak, associate 
professor of foreign languages, 
has been named chairman of 
the department. 

• Dr. Jackson E. Jeffrey, associ- 
ate professor of biology, has 
been named chairman of the 
department. 

• Dr Howard Risatti, formerly 
acting chairman and assistant 
professor of art history, is now 
associate professor and 
chairman. 

• Dr Joseph A. Seipel, assistant 
professor of sculpture, is the new 
chairman of the department. 

• Dr. Harold F. Young, professor 
of surgery, has been named 
chairman of the Division of Neu- 
rosurgery in the School of 
Medicine. 

• Dr Janet Younger, formerly 
acting chairman of the Depart- 
ment of Medical-Surgical Nurs- 
ing, is now chairman. She will 
continue as associate professor 
in the department. 

Executive-in-Residence 

Brenton S. Halsey, chairman and 
chief executive officer of the 
James River Corporation, spent 
two days in October in the 
School of Business as the Charles 
G. Thalhimer Family Executive-in- 
Residence. 

Started in 1984, the Executive- 
in-Residence Program gives 
students an extra dimension info 
their studies through exposure to 
the real business world and 
provides faculty the opportunity 
to discuss ideas and issues with 
top executives. 

Halsey founded the James 
River Corporation in 1969 and 



20 



has helped lead it to annual 
sales of more than S2.5 billion. It 
was named one of the Five Best 
Managed Companies of 1983 by 
Dun's Business Monfh. Halsey was 
named Outstanding Industrialist 
of 1985 by the Science Museum 
of Virginia and the Paper Indus- 
try Management Association 
Man of the Year, an award he 
shares with Robert C. Williams, 
president and cofounder of the 
James River Corporation, 

Punk rock scholar 

Many know her as the world's 
leading authority on Arnold 
Schoenberg, the composer 
credited with revolutionizing 
twentieth century music. Others 
know her as a prominent author, 
music critic, and gifted pianist. 
But few know Dr Dika Newlln as 
a 62-year-old rock star capable 
of bringing the roof down with 
her nightclub punk rock act. 

A VCU music professor, Newlin 
has written minimalist works for 
percussion, produced electronic 
music at Bell Laboratories, and 
even composed a piece based 
on the purring of a cat. She 
picked up four awards at the 
1984 Music City Song Festival in 
Nashville and thinks her timing Is 
right for a pop chart hit. 

MCV Foundation 
grants and awards 

The MCV Foundation Board of 
Directors approved grants and 
allocations for fiscal 1985-86 
totaling $844,514 for schools on 
the MCV Campus and the MCV 
Hospitals. 

The Schools of Allied Health 
Professions, Basic Health Sci- 
ences, Dentistry, Medicine, 
Nursing, and Pharmacy received 
nearly $800,000 to provide fac- 
ulty salary support, student schol- 
arships, and funding for equip- 
ment and research. More than 
$46,000 will go toward the MCV 
Hospitals' indigent patient care 
fund. 

Support from the MCV Foun- 
dation will enable the School of 
Basic Health Sciences to pur- 
chase a molecular computer 
graphics systems. This computer 
will be used by researchers In the 
Departments of Pharmacology 
and Toxicology, Biochemistry, 
and Medicinal Chemistry to 
build molecular models of nu- 
cleic acids, proteins, and cell 
surface receptors. 



The School of Dentistry will 
replace equipment that Is nearly 
15 years old and establish three 
new operatories in the dental 
specialties clinic and the under- 
graduate clinic. 

The School of Medicine will 
establish a neurology research 
laboratory for Dr. Robert De- 
Lorenzo, the new chairman of 
the Department of Neurology, 
While at Yale University, De- 
Lorenzo started a nationally- 
recognized neurology research 
program and will be continuing 
his studies on aging, epilepsy, 
and drug use. 

A pediatrics department study 
of how scar tissue develops In 
Crohn's disease will be aided by 
the purchase of new laboratory 
equipment. Research Into car- 
diovascular disease will continue 
with grants provided to new 
investigators in the Internal medi- 
cine department. The Schools of 
Nursing and Pharmacy will re- 
ceive new computer equipment, 
and the renovation of the Shelter- 
ing Arms Building will continue 
for the School of Allied Health 
Professions. 



Money for a museum 

General Operating Support 
(GOS) awards for 1985 went to 
449 museums in the United 
States. These awards from the 
Institute of Museum Services in 
Washington, DC, assist museums 
with their costs of basic services. 

The Anderson Gallery was one 
of the top ten museums to re- 
ceive funds, which totaled 
$8,775. As the institute noted, the 
Anderson Gallery is a small 
exhibit and research gallery 
whose exhibitions reflect impor- 
tant movements in contemporary 
and earlier art and whose inter- 
pretive approach benefits VCU 
and the Richmond community. 

The 449 museums selected 
came from a field of 1,264 appli- 
cations for the one-year grants, 
which are made by the institute 
on a competitive basis. Museums 
are eligible for awards up to 10 
percent of their nonfederal oper- 
ating income, up to a maximum 
of $75,000. 

SCHEV foreign 
language resolutions 

This summer, the State Council of 
Higher Education for Virginia 
adopted resolutions concerning 
a foreign language task force 
report completed in May 1985. 



Task force recommendations 
SCHEV accepted include estab- 
lishing a system-wide consortium 
to offer foreign language study 
to all Interested students, chang- 
ing procedures to allow financial 
aid to be received by Institutions' 
students in study-abroad pro- 
grams, taking into account 
temporary enrollment declines In 
foreign language disciplines 
when students study abroad, 
establishing procedures to re- 
duce tuition and fees charged to 
foreign exchange students as- 
suming minor teaching roles in 
college foreign language de- 
partments, developing com- 
munication among all levels of 
foreign language education with 
the aid of SCHEV and the State 
Board of Education, and provid- 
ing continuing support for foreign 
language activities by appoint- 
ing a SCHEV staff member to 
confer with institutions. 

Recommendations endorsed 
by SCHEV and referred to public 
institutions of higher education 
Include exploring the feasibility 
of establishing a center offering 
graduate-level language Instruc- 
tion and one year of study 
abroad for secondary school 
foreign language teachers, 
setting up at least one Center of 
Excellence in Foreign Language 
Instruction to support such study 
in Virginia, and Incorporating a 
multicultural and international 
perspective in all curricula by 
modifying existing course 
content. 

Further, SCHEV endorsed goals 
that all baccalaureate students 
achieve competence in a for- 
eign language through two 
years of college study or its 
equivalent; that institutions with 
selective admissions require, by 
fall 1988, all entering freshmen to 
have completed either two years 
each of two languages or three 
years of one language, and all 
baccalaureate students to have 
further language study; and that 
institutions with nonselective 
admissions encourage the study 
of foreign languages In second- 
ary school and note to prospec- 
tive students that foreign lan- 
guage study is required of all 
undergraduates. 

Bear facts 

The Children's Medical Center of 
MCV Hospitals, in conjunction 
with the U.S. Department of 
Health and Human Services, 
launched a national handwash- 
ing campaign in September to 
reduce the number of hospital 



acquired infections in pediatric 
hospitals. 

T Bear, a stuffed teddy bear, is 
the symbol of the national pro- 
gram to remind children, par- 
ents, and health care personnel 
that infections can be combat- 
ted through frequent handwash- 
ing. White House press secretary 
James Brady is the honorary 
chairman. 

T Bears are distributed to all 
children in the special care 
nursery and pediatric intensive 
care unit at the Children's Medi- 
cal Center The toys carry printed 
instructions on the importance of 
handwashing. Children also will 
be encouraged to ask visitors to 
wash their hands. 

'We are always looking for 
new mechanisms to attempt to 
lower hospital acquired infection 
rates," said MCVH's Dr. Glenn 
Mayhall, associate professor of 
internal medicine. "We're one of 
only a few teaching hospitals in 
the country working with HHS to 
test this program to see if it has 
an impact." 

According to HHS, the cam- 
paign is directed toward hospital 
personnel because the chance 
of spreading germs in a hospital 
is very high. The Center for Dis- 
ease Control in Atlanta says that 
nationally more than 2 million 
patients each year get an Infec- 
tion while In the hospital. The 
annual cost of treating these 
infections is an estimated S2.5 
billion. 

The T Bear campaign is a 
continuation of a 1980 project 
conducted at the pediatric 
branch of the National Cancer 
Institute. A dramatic decrease in 
serious infections among patients 
was recorded at the NCI branch 
after teddy bears toting preven- 
tive messages were distributed. 

Humanizing medicine 

Competition, mart<eting, special- 
ization, high technology, spiral- 
ing health care costs: these are 
issues that have been associated 
v/tih the medical profession in 
the last few years. They also are 
issues that have created barriers 
between physicians and their 
patients. With the pressure of 
"cost effectiveness" predominat- 
ing health care, many physicians 
have been reducing the amount 
of time they spend with patients. 
Patients, today more knowledge- 
able about and more Involved in 
their own health care, are more 



21 



likely to fault a physician who 
exhibits an unfeeling or authorita- 
tive attitude. 

The American Board of Internal 
Medicine (ABIM) soys it's time the 
profession began thinking about 
the humanistic side of practicing 
medicine, and is now requiring 
all internal medicine residency 
programs to evaluate "humanis- 
tic qualities" of internists before 
admitting them to the ABIM 
certification examination. The 
ABIM defines these qualities as 
integrity, respect, compassion, 
honesty, trustworthiness, commit- 
ment, and humility. A physician is 
ineligible to become board 
certified in internal medicine if 
he or she receives an unsatisfac- 
tory evaluation. 

"An internist must have addi- 
tional skills beyond basic medi- 
cal knowledge," said Dr. Harold 
J. Fallon, chairman of the univer- 
sity's Department of Internal 
Medicine. "We have legitimately 
been criticized by the public for 
decades. I don't think a physi- 
cian should be ABIM certified if 
he or she is unprofessional and 
can't maintain good interper- 
sonal relationships with patients 
and colleagues." 

Fallon, currently chairman- 
elect of the ABIM, will become 
chairman of the 28-member 
board next July. The ABIM sets 
standards for training and levels 
of competence for internists 
entering the field. Fallon has 
been a member for six years and 
helps to monitor the evaluation 
process in internal medicine 
residency programs across the 
country. Each year approxi- 
mately 8,000 internists take the 
ABIM certification exam, and an 
average of 4,500 pass. There are 
more than 75,000 ABIM certified 
internists in the United States 
today. 

Outstanding faculty 

VCU faculty were honored in 
October during convocation, the 
onnual ceremony to present the 
Distinguished Teaching Award, 
the Distinguished Research 
Award, the Distinguished Service 
Award, and the University Award 
of Excellence. 

The University Award of Excel- 
lence was given to Dr Walter E. 
Nance in recognition of his con- 
tributions in teaching, research. 



and service. Nance, professor 
and chairman of the Depart- 
ment of Human Genetics, has 
been a VCU faculty member 
since 1975. Dr C. William Griffin, 
associate professor of English, 
received the Distinguished 
Teaching Award. Dr George 
DeVries, professor of biochemis- 
try, received the Distinguished 
Research Award, And, the Distin- 
guished Service Award was 
given to Dr Iris Partiam, associ- 
ate professor of psychology and 
chairman of the Department of 
Gerontology. 

Speaker for Convocation 1985 
was Dr Terrel H. Bell, former 
secretary of the U.S. Department 
of Education (1981-84) and cur- 
rently professor of education 
administration at the University of 
Utah. Bell addressed convoca- 
tion on "Our Nation's Quest for 
Excellence in Education." As 
education secretary. Bell es- 
tablished the National Commis- 
sion on Excellence in Education 
which produced the landmark 
report, "A Nation at Risk," direct- 
ing national attention toward the 
need for substantial reforms 
throughout the education system. 

Annual giving 
recognition 

The second annual donor recog- 
nition dinner, honoring contribu- 
tors to the 1984-85 VCU Annual 
Giving Program, was held in 
October President and Mrs. 
Edmund f. Ackell hosted this 
special event for 151 guests, 
which included alumni, friends of 
the university, and university 
leaders. 

In his address, Ackell thanked 
the donors for establishing lead- 
ership levels of giving to the 
university, its schools, scholar- 
ships, and other programs, and 
for setting precedents in giving to 
VCU. Ackell noted that such gifts 
make possible many things that 
state appropriations do not 
provide. "In a very real sense, 
achieving excellence in teach- 
ing, research, and service at 
VCU is possible only through 
such personal gifts and commit- 
ment," Ackell said. 

During the presentation, Ackell 
recognized donors at the highest 
level of giving. The 1838 Club is 
the highest donor club in the 
Annual Giving Program, with 
individual donations of Si .000 or 
more. It is named for the univer- 
sity's founding date, the year that 
the Medical College of Virginia 
was created, 



Bright basketball 



prospects 

The VCU basketball team will 
plunge into the 1985-86 season | 
without the winningest coach in 
the school's history, without four- 
fifths of the line-up that last year 
was ranked 11th in the final AP 
and UPI polls, and without 78 
percent of last year's offense. 

But these losses do not neces- 
sarily mean the VCU Rams are 
going to serve as the Sun Belt 
Conference's whipping boy 
during the upcoming year 

Not if Mike Pollio has anything 
to say about it. 

Pollio, a brilliant coach who 
took over a waterlogged Ken- 
tucky Wesleyon program in 1981 
and drove it to the NCAA Divi- 
sion II Final Four three times in the 
past five campaigns, is the man 
chosen to replace J. D. Barnett. 
An animated and engaging 
man, Pollio will bring a new style 
and enthusiasm to VCU's games 
in 1985-86. Gone is Barnett's ultra- 
successful but straitlaced offense. 
In its place. Rams fans and foes 
will see a frisky, up-tempo attack 
that will run when possible. VCU 
averaged 72.3 points and 52 
shots per game last year Pollio's 
Kentucy Wesleyon club aver- 
aged 81.8 points and 66 shots 
per game. 

Of course, no offensive 
scheme can succeed unless its 
architect can replace the X's 
and O's with capable players. 
Pollio may be able to do that— 
the loss of Rolando Lamb, Calvin 
Duncan, Mike Schlegel, Neil 
Wake, and Robert Dickerson, 
players who produced 55.6 
points and 22.4 rebounds per 
game in 1984-85, notv\/ithstandinc 

Pollio will construct his first VCU 
club around the multifoceted 
skills of 6-foot-5 Michael Brown. A 
small forward by trade. Brown 
may be shifted to wing guard for 
his final collegiate season. He 
has started 93 games since his 
arrival on Franklin Street in 1982. 
He was third on the club in scor- 
ing (10.8), rebounding (4.3), and 
assists (53) last year 

The rest of the starting line-up is 
not so easily identified. Nicky 
Jones, a 6-2 senior guard who 
was redshirted lost year but 
started nine games in 1983-84, is 
the leading candidate at point 
guard. Alvin Robinson, a 6-9 
sophomore who blossomed 
toward the end of his freshman 
season, would appear to be the 
leading candidate to replace 



Schlegel at center Phil Stinnie. a 
6-8 sophomore with a wealth of 
athletic ability, may have an 
edge at forward. 

Beyond those players, nothing 
is certain. Pollio has taken pos- 
session of a good recruiting class 
that includes eight new faces 
from a year ago. It is not unrea- 
sonable to assume that one or 
more of the youngsters will ap- 
pear in the starting line-up be- 
fore season's end. Those with the 
best chances appear to be 
Derrick McGhee (6-2 from Eliza- 
beth, New Jersey] at point 
guard, Willie Jennings (6-9 from 
Son Jacinto Junior College) at 
power forward, and Brian Bender 
(6-3 from Midfield, Alabama) at 
wing guard. The roster contains 
the promise of abundant depth. 
Reserves return at point guard 
(6-0 junior Bruce Allen), wing 
guard (6-4 junior Andy Black), 
small forward (6-5 junior Don 
Franco), and power forward (6-6 
sophomore Darrell Reid). Bruce 
Pettway, a 6-6 transfer from the 
University of Alabama, becomes 
eligible this year and is expected 
to make a contribution in the 
frontcourt. 

The recruiting crop also will 
help in this area. William Feazell 
(6-7 from Garden City Commu- 
nity College) and Bruce Robin- 
son (6-7 from Richmond's Henrico 
High) are listed at forward. Martin 
Henlan (6-10 from Birmingham, 
England) will likely serve as Alvin 
Robinson's understudy in the 
middle. 

Pollio's team will have to nego- 
tiate a demanding schedule if it 
hopes to capture a fourth con- 
secutive NCAA Tournament 
invitation and fifth in the last six 
years. In addition to a full com- 
plement of Sun Belt Conference 
games, the Rams must cope with 
appearances in the UVB-Cava- 
lier Classic (November 30-De- 
cember 1 ) and the Times-Dis- 
patch Invitational Tournament 
(December 20-21), a home 
game against Marquette Univer- 
sity, a road test at the University 
of Dayton, and home-and-home 
games with instate rival Virginia 
Tech. 

— Mike Ballweg 
Sports Information Directoi 



22 



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Helping high-risk 
teenagers 

Edward H. Peeples, Jr., Ph.D., 
associate professor of preventive 
medicine, in conjunction witti ttie 
Richmond City Health Depart- 
ment, was awarded a 335,000 
grant from the Virginia Bureau of 
Mcrternal and Child Health. The 
project seeks to promote health 
among Richmond teenagers at 
high risk of pregnancy and 
delivering premature infants, as 
well as address Richmond's high 
rote of infant mortality. The one- 
year project, which began in 
August, centers on the recruit- 
ment and training of community 
health workers. These workers, 
known as resource mothers, will 
work closely with pregnant and 
high-risk teenaged girls to help 
them overcome obstacles to 
getting needed health care and 
other services. 

Continuing cancer 
study support 

Dr, I. David Goldman, professor 
of medicine, received a $2.5 
million National Cancer Institute 
Outstanding Investigator Grant to 
support cancer research in his 
laboratory for the next seven 
years. 

Goldman plans to investigate 
how drugs are transported into 
cancer cells and, once inside 
the cell, how these drugs attack 
targets that cause cancer- 
related death. These studies also 
seek to identify methods for 
making anti-cancer drugs less 
harmful to normal human tissues. 
Goldman also will investigate 
how and why cancer cells build 
resistance to anti-cancer drugs. 

Goldmari's work with the anti- 
cancer drug, methotrexate, has 
led to important new clinical 
applications. According to 
Goldman, methotrexate is a 
potent anti-cancer drug that has 
been used in chemotherapy for 
40 years. However, scientists are 
just beginning to understand how 
the drug wor1<s and how it can 
be used most effectively. In a 
new clinical cancer treatment 
trial developed from basic re- 
search with this drug, Goldman is 
combining methotrexate with a 
notjjrally occurring substance, 
thymidine, to treat tumors of the 
oral cavity, head, and neck. This 
combination therapy may be 



more effective, according to 
Goldman, because the toxic 
effects of the anti-cancer drug 
are blocked by thymidine in 
normal cells. Only tumor cells are 
killed. 

As chairman of the Division of 
Hematology and Oncology, 
Goldman also directs a group of 
physician-scientists with diverse 
scientific backgrounds and 
research interests who interact 
closely to stimulate new ideas 
and approaches to the causes 
and treatment of cancer. These 
scientists are studying how nor- 
mal cells of the immune system 
identify and kill malignant cells, 
how genes are duplicated in hu- 
man cells during growth, the 
changes in genes that cause 
malignancies, and how genes 
associated with cancer 
(called one genes) 
determine the behavior of can- 
cer cells and their response to 
treatment. They also are studying 
how anti-cancer drugs, which 
can result in the cure of some 
cancers, create changes in 
genes in normal cells that later 
produce second malignancies. 

Modern heahh risks in 
ancient times 

Syphilis, pneumonia, tuberculo- 
sis, and domestic violence. These 
problems have a familiar and 
contemporary ring, but VCU 
paleopathologists say that South 
Americans were coping with the 
same difficulties 3,000 years ago. 
The researchers drew their con- 
clusions while examining mum- 
mies from pre-Columbia Chile 
and Peru during a 14-day study 
of trauma. Their findings also 
suggest that life support systems 
and medical knowledge were 
greater than had been assumed. 

The dilemma of divorce 

Children often react to their 
parents' divorce by developing 
their own problems, from fighting 
and failing to becoming over- 
achieving perfectionists. These 
children, says a VCU psycholo- 
gist, need help before their 
problems become full-blown 
mental disorders. 

Dr. Arnold Stolberg, associate 
professor of psychology, has 
been researching the effects of 
divorce on children since 1972. 
He has developed a program to 
teach children how to cope with 
divorce-related difficulties, a 



program that helps them learn 
practical self-help methods for 
the new and unfamiliar situations 
in which they may find 
themselves. 

The program techniques, 
tested over the last three years in 
Chesterfield County, Virginia, 
public schools with students 
aged nine to 13, are now being 
taught in wor1<shops in several 
states to school personnel and 
other professionals who deal with 
divorcing parents. 

Because divorce often fosters 
change, such as moving to a 
new house or neighborhood, a 
child may leave behind not only 
a parent, but friends, schools, 
playgrounds, and a certain 
standard of living. "A young child 
who is egocentric looks at all 
these people who are leaving his 
or her life and thinks they are 
leaving 'because there is some- 
thing wrong with me,' " says 
Stolberg. As a result of these 
feelings and the inability to 
communicate such frustrations, 
the child's self-esteem decreases 
and anxiety, depression, or 
aggression may follow. 

Stolberg's 12-week Divorce 
Adjustment Project teaches 
children to identify their feelings, 
to communicate those feelings, 
and to make choices. He says 
researchers have found that 
participants' behavior and self- 
esteem make great strides by 
the completion of the program, 
and that when tested five months 
later, social skills and self-esteem 
have improved even more. 
Parallel counseling programs for 
custodial parents, or single par- 
ents' support groups, also ap- 
pear to help the children through 
difficult times. 

The Chesterfield County pro- 
gram currently is being repli- 
cated at the University of Roch- 
ester with "even more exciting 
results," says Stolberg. Many of 
divorce's potential problems for 
children could be prevented, he 
feels, by the way their parents 
handle the divorce. 

Stolberg is now investigating 
the training of lawyers, pediatri- 
cians, and clergy to be more 
sensitive to the psychological 
results of their recommendations 
to divorcing couples. 



Studying head injury 

A typical head injury victim, says 
Dr. Michael Bond, is a young 
male who has a poor memon/ 
and who thinks slowly, lacks 
concentration, and is bad tem- 
pered. The victim may be physi- 
cally aggressive and apathetic. 

Bond, a neurosurgeon and 
psychiatrist at the University of 
Glasgow in Scotland, spoke 
on the subject at the VCU- 
sponsored ninth annual Interna- 
tional Conference on the Reha- 
bilitation of the Brain Injured 
Adult and Child. Over 300 medi- 
cal professionals from throughout 
the United States, Canada, and 
Great Britain attended the June 
conference in Williamsburg, 
Virginia, to discuss research, 
prevention, treatment, and reha- 
bilitation of brain injured persons. 

Head injury is the number one 
killer of Americans between the 
ages of one and 44. More than 
50 percent of head injuries occur 
in men and women under the 
age of 30, and men between 
the ages of 17 and 30 are most 
frequently affected. 

According to Bond, a great 
need exists for research and 
critical evaluation procedures to 
find out what really works best for 
head injured patients and the 
best time for various rehabilita- 
tive efforts. His own research has 
focused on the effects of head 
injury on family members as well 
as on patients. 

Because of the high incidence 
of head injury in Virginia, the 
state's 1984 General Assembly 
passed legislation requiring 
hospitals to register all head 
injury victims to enable the De- 
partment of Rehabilitative Ser- 
vices to develop programs for 
these persons. Over 3,300 head 
injury victims were registered in 
the first nine months after the law 
went into effect on July 1 , 1984. 

Neurosurgeons at MCV Hospi- 
tals have been studying head 
injuries for the past decade; 
through their efforts MCVH mor- 
tality rates have dropped to 
among the lowest in the country, 
and physicians have designed a 
protocol for treating head injuries 
that has become standard 
procedure. 



Kills bugs dead 

After studying cockroaches for 
20 years. Dr. Richard R. Mills, 
VCU professor of biology, says he 
has invented the safest, most 



23 



effective chemical for killing the 
household nuisance. 

There's only one problem: the 
roaches don't absorb it. 

So far, the only way Mills can 
get the chemical into a cock- 
roach's bloodstream is to catch 
the pest and inject the com- 
pounds with a needle. Not a 
viable solution, considering once 
caught, they're easier stepped 
on. 

Mills, who is working with 
chemistry professor Dr. R. M. 
Ottenbrite, says the chemical 
compounds are designed to 
prevent a cockroach's shell from 
hardening, causing it to dry up 
and die. The two researchers are 
now looking for ways to induce 
cockroaches to ingest the com- 
pounds. A major advantage of 
the chemicals is that they will not 
harm anything but cockroaches. 

Cockroaches, Mills says, are a 
true evolutionary success story. 
Predators do not like them be- 
cause they taste greasy, and in a 
year, a healthy American cock- 
roach produces nearly 800 
progeny. 

Mills is certain of one thing. If 
he can make his invention palat- 
able, the cockroach population 
is in severe danger. "We may hit 
it tomorrow," he says. "Or maybe 
in five years. I don't know. But if it 
is super good, everyone stands 
to profit." 

Making it in the 
real world 

Con people that society expects 
to fail actually make it in the 
mainstream? Should mentally 
retarded individuals be allowed 
to become productive members 
of that same society? VCU's 
Rehabilitation and Research 
Training Center (RRTC) operates 
on the premise that the answers 
to these and other, similar ques- 
tions is a resounding "yesi" 

The center's mission is to pro- 
vide research and training re- 
lated to the employment of 
mentally retarded persons, with 
a specific focus on providing 
high quality and diverse applied 
research in the area of competi- 
tive employment. Research 
conducted at the center derives 
from previous and ongoing work 
vi/ith severely disabled mentally 
retarded people; this fact, ac- 
cording to center director. Dr. 
Paul Wehman, is what makes 
their mainstreaming program 
different. The average IQ of the 
program's clients is 50, with a 
range from 25 to 78. 



In the current competitive 
employment program, each 
mentally retarded client is given 
an appropriate job and a job 
coach. The coach works with the 
client, making sure the job is 
done while the client learns the 
tasks necessary. As the client 
learns, the coach gradually 
allows him or her to assume full 
responsibility for the job. Any time 
thereafter, however, the client or 
employer may ask the job 
coach back to help with any 
problems or questions. 

While the average turnover for 
nonhandicapped persons in this 
type of job is five months, 65 
percent of the center's 155 clients 
thus far have remained at their 
jobs longer than six months. This 
success rate, says Janet W. Hill, 
director of research, helps show 
that people should be given a 
chance to make it in the world of 
"normal" people before they are 
sent to an institution or sheltered 
workplace. 

VCU's RRTC is funded by a 
grant from the National Institute 
of Handicapped Research of the 
U.S. Department of Education. 

Immunity interference 

A form of dioxin known to con- 
taminate one of the most heavily 
used pesticides in the United 
States, technical grade pentach- 
lorophenol, has been shown to 
interfere with normal immune 
function in laboratory mice. 

In an ongoing study funded by 
the National Institute of Environ- 
mental Health Sciences and the 
National Institutes of Health, re- 
searchers have found evidence 
to suggest that this dioxin could 
be responsible for the immuno- 
toxicity caused by exposure to 
the unpurified pesticide. 

Many environmental pollutants 
are known to interfere with the 
immune system, the body's major 
defense against foreign invaders 
and abnormal cells. TCDD, the 
prototype dioxin, has been 
shown to affect immune function 
in laboratory testing. The toxic 
synthetic chemical causes the 
thymus, a lymphoid organ nec- 
essary for the normal develop- 
ment of immunological function, 
to atrophy. In addition it de- 
presses a variety of specific 
immune functions. 

The VCU-based study shows 
that another dioxin — HCDD, the 
principle contaminant of pen- 



tachlorophenol — is also immuno- 
toxic. Dr. Michael Holsapple, 
assistant professor. Department 
of Pharmacology and Toxicol- 
ogy; Peter McNerney, laboratory 
specialist; Dr. Kimber White, Jr., 
assistant professor. Department 
of Biostatistics; and Dr. Donald 
Barnes of East Carolina University 
in Greenville found that purified 
pesticide had no immune ef- 
fects. But they discovered that 
when mice were exposed to the 
dioxin for 14 days at levels similar 
to those found in the contami- 
nated pesticide, some of the 
ability to manufacture antibodies 
to foreign cells was affected. 

The investigators concluded 
that while the dioxin HCDD may 
not be entirely responsible for the 
unpurified pesticide's immuno- 
toxic effects, it is at least partly 
responsible. Further research 
may determine whether other 
components of the pesticide 
could also be involved. 



Criminal corrections 

grant 

The Department of Administra- 
tion of Justice and Public Safety 
in the School of Community and 
Public Affairs received a 549,350 
grant from the National Institute 
of Corrections, U.S. Department 
of Justice. The grant will go 
toward developing a training 
curriculum for professionals in 
criminal corrections jobs. 

Professor Paul Keve will direct 
the project. The program in- 
cludes retraining corrections 
personnel who are involved in 
intensive supervision of persons 
on probation or parole. Accord- 
ing to Keve, intensive supervision 
programs are an effective alter- 
native to overcrowded and very 
expensive prisons. Says Keve; "It 
costs American taxpayers ap- 
proximately 510,000 a year to 
keep one person in prison. Cur- 
rently, more money is spent 
keeping people in prison than 
what it would cost to keep them 
out." 

With increasing frequency, 
communities are recognizing the 
economic and social value of 
intensive supervision programs. 
Keve's curriculum, correlated 
with restructured schedules, will 
enable officers to work with 
substantially reduced client 
loads, thereby improving the 
effectiveness of their supervision 
and counseling. 



A powerful attraction 

Hoisting a six-ton magnet through 
a hole In the wall can't be an 
easy job; but when installation is 
complete, the magnet will weigh 
over 61 ,000 pounds and Central 
Virginia physicians will have a 
powerful and sensitive new 
diagnostic imaging techniaue. 

The magnet recently has been 
placed in a specially con- 
structed magnetic resonance 
imaging (MRI) room in the De- 
partment of Radiology on the 
third floor of Main Hospital. Instal- 
lation should be complete by the 
end of this fall, with the first pa- 
tients accepted in early 1986. 

MRI scanners use powerful 
magnets and radio frequency 
signals to generate computer- 
ized internal images of the body 
The primary advantage of this 
technology Is that it uses no 
radiation; instead, a magnet 
polarizes certain hydrogen 
atoms in the body. The atoms are 
agitated with radio waves, 
causing the atoms to emit radio 
wave energy, which is detected 
by the computer and trans- 
formed into images. 

MRI scans have proven useful 
in diagnosing central nervous 
system abnormalities in the brain 
and spinal cord area, particu- 
larly in regions not previously 
accessible. The images are 
clearer and more sensitive and 
can provide necessary informa- 
tion for the early detection of 
diseases such as multiple 
sclerosis. 

Research and treatment of 
many other diseases may be 
advanced by these diagnostl- 
cally superior pictures. Radiolo- 
gists, for instance, have been 
using MRI scans to diagnose 
diseases of the heart, blood 
vessels, and bone. Because 
MRI scans can provide a three- 
dimensional picture, exact tumor 
volumes can be determined, 
furnishing useful information for 
surgical guidance and radiation 
therapy. 

Managing health care 

Major research in the Depart- 
ment of Health Administration 
has centered on Medicaid and 
Medicare, but faculty have beer 
involved in a number of other 
projects, such as the strategic 
development of multihospital 
systems, management technolo- 



24 



gies in health administration and 
the efficient use of nurses, service 
use of the state's psychiatric hos- 
pitals, and developing programs 
in long-term care administration. 

The Kellogg Foundation has 
awarded the department a 
grant to study the rapid grovulh 
of multi-institutional health care 
systems and to develop related 
teaching hospitals. Grov»^h in 80 
hospital systems, representing 
over 350 hospitals, is the primary 
focus of this study. VCU's re- 
search team will examine such 
large corporations as Humana, 
Hospital Corporation of America, 
and the Lutheran Hospital 
Society of California. The VCU 
contingent is working in cooper- 
ation with the Association of 
University Programs in Health 
Administration. 

Studying systems for improving 
nursing productivity is another 
important research activity. A 



$250,000 project just completed 
focused on how the skills of 
nurses could be better matched 
to patients in hospitals. To control 
its costs, a hospital needs to find 
the most efficient way to control 
its single largest expense — line 
nursing costs — without affecting 
delivery of services. 

A quantitative assessment of 
psychiatric services in Virginia is 
a joint project conducted by 
health administration faculty and 
the staff of the state's Depart- 
ment of Mental Health and 
Mental Retardation. Comprehen- 
sive data have been gathered 
to examine the variation in psy- 
chiatric services provided in 
state facilities. The relationship 
between inpatient and commu- 
nity-based psychiatric seivices 
will be examined and forecast- 
ing with resource allocation 
models developed. 

Beverly Enterprises recently 
awarded the department 



$74,000 to implement manage- 
ment development programs in 
long-term care administration 
and support projects that en- 
hance the department's ability to 
increase the number of gradu- 
ates entering the field. In addi- 
tion to this award from Beverly 
Enterprises of Pasadena, the 
department received $32,000 
from the company's eastern 
division, located in Virginia 
Beach, to provide stipends for 
undergraduate and graduate 
students planning to enter long- 
term care administration. Ser- 
vices for the elderly are pro- 
jected to be the fastest growing 
segment of the health care 
industry Maintaining a commit- 
ment to attract highly qualified 
nursing home administrators, 
Beverly Enterprises has an- 
nounced further intentions to 
continue financial support for 
students in VCU's Department of 
Health Administration. 



Advanced dental 
training 

The School of Dentistry has been 
awarded an institutional dental 
scientist grant from the National 
Institute of Dental Research for 
training graduate dentists in an 
advanced clinical discipline — 
periodontics or dental anesthesi- 
ology and a basic science area. 
The five-year grant program is 
directed by Dr Richard R. Ran- 
ney, assistant dean for research 
in the School of Dentistry. Training 
in anesthesiology could be 
combined with a Ph.D. program 
in pharmacology, while peri- 
odontics might be coupled with 
a Ph.D. program in microbiology, 
immunology, biochemistry, or 
human genetics. A program for 
periodontal students leading to 
an M.S. degree in biostatistics is 
also a possibility. 



N 



W 



Carol Ann Amato, assistant 
director of the Center for Public 
Affairs, is on a leave of absence 
to serve as commissioner of the 
state's Department of Labor and 
Industry Governor Charles Robb 
made the appointment this 
summer. 

David A. Ameen, associate 
professor of information systems, 
has been appointed to the 
school board of the City of 
Hopewell. 

Delia Anderson, instructor in 
English, published 101 Virginia 
Women Writers as part of the 
Virginia Women's Cultural History 
Project. 

Robert L. Bolster, professor of 
pharmacology and toxicology, 
has been appointed chairman 
of the National Institute on Drug 
Abuse, Clinical and Behavioral 
Research Review Committee. 

Lorna Mill Borrell, chairman 
of the Department of Community 
and Psychiatric Nursing, has 
been elected as a Distinguished 
Practitioner to the National 
Academies of Practice (NAP). 
The NAP consists of nine individ- 
ual academies in the major 
health fields of dentistry, medi- 
cine, nursing, optometry, osteop- 
athy, podiatry, psychology. 



S M 

social work, and veterinary 
medicine. 

R. Gerald Boss, professor of 
chemistry, was elected president 
of the Virginia Academy of 
Science at its annual spring 
meeting. 

Valerie Botts, Mary Sonn, 
and Joycelyn Londrum, staff of 
University Counseling Services, 
and James Cones, graduate 
student in psychology, presented 
a symposium at the American 
Psychological Association con- 
vention in Los Angeles. Their 
topic was "Incorporating a Multi- 
cultural Perspective at Virginia 
Commonwealth University." 

Boyd M. Berry, associate 
professor of English, has been 
awarded an American Council 
of Learned Societies Fellowship. 
ACLS is a private, nonprofit 
federation of 45 scholarly associ- 
ations devoted to the advance- 
ment of humanistic studies in all 
academic disciplines. Bern/ has 
been designated an authority in 
the English Renaissance. 

John C. Birmingtiam, associ 
ate professor of Spanish, has 
been elected to a two-year term 
as president of the American 
Association of Teachers of 
Esperanto. 

Charles R. Blem, professor of 
biology, and Janice M. 
Sprenkle, research associate in 



A K 

the Department of Cardiovascu- 
lar Physiology, received the 
Edwards Award from the Wilson 
Ornithological Society. The 
award, given annually for the 
most outstanding paper pub- 
lished during the past year in the 
Wiison Builetin. recognized their 
paper, "Metabolism and Food 
Selection of Eastern House 
Finches." 

Lynn Z. Bloom, professor of 
English, served as a Fellow at a 
conference of the College As- 
sessment Program Evaluation 
session, sponsored by the City 
University of New York and 
funded by the Fund for the Im- 
provement of Post-Secondary 
Education. Bloom was one of six 
English composition specialists 
who met with nationwide experts 
in reading, mathematics, and 
English as a second language 
for special training to evaluate 
college and university place- 
ment programs. 

James H. Boykin, director of 
the Virginia Real Estate Research 
Center and the Alfred L. Blake 
Professor of Real Estate, was 
elected chairman of the Real 
Estate Center Directors and 
Chairholders Association. The 
association promotes real estate 
knowledge, coordinates national 



R 



real estate research, identifies 
research needs and real estate- 
related topics, and disseminates 
l<nowledge throughout the real 
estate industry. 

S. Gaylen Bradley, dean of 
the School of Basic Health Sci- 
ences, was appointed to a 
three-year term on the Govern- 
ing Board of the Engineering 
Club of Richmond, Inc. 

Chestino Brollier, assistant 
professor of occupational ther- 
apy, has been selected a fellow 
of the American Occupational 
Therapy Association. 

Joseph P. Bush, assistant 
professor of psychology, pre- 
sented two papers at the Ameri- 
can Psychological Association 
convention in Los Angeles; "Par- 
enting Children in a Stressful 
Medical Situation" and "Mother- 
Child Interaction in the Medical 
Setting: A Sequential Analysis." 

Robert Campbell, associate 
professor of oral and maxillofa- 
cial surgery and anesthesiology, 
has been appointed editor of 
the newsletter for the American 
Dental Society of Anesthesiology 
and reappointed section editor 
of the Journal of Oral and Maxil- 
iofacial Surger/. 

Herbert B. Chermiside, direc- 
tor of sponsored programs ad- 
ministration of the Office of Re- 
search and Graduate Affairs, 



25 



presented a paper, "University 
Views on University-Industry 
Research Agreements," to ttie 
Richmond Bar Association's 
Corporate Counsel Section. 

I. Kelman Cohen, professor 
and chairman of the Division of 
Plastic and Reconstructive Sur- 
gery, was a featured speaker for 
the Israeli Association of Plastic 
and Reconstructive Surgeons at 
the International Congress on 
Construction and Rehabilitation 
of the Burn Patient, held in 
Jerusalem. 

Robert D. Cromey, associate 
professor of history, served this 
summer as visiting professor to 
the Historical Studies Division, 
Institute for Advanced Study, in 
Princeton, New Jersey. 

Larrie J. Dean, assistant dean 
of the School of Allied Health 
Professions, has been appointed 
to the Chesterfield County Hu- 
man Services Needs Advisory 
Committee. 

Leo J. Dunn, professor and 
chairman of obstetrics and 
gynecology, has been elected 
to the editorial board of Gyneco- 
logic Oncology. 

Gilbert W. Fairholm, associ- 
ate professor of public adminis- 
tration, published his article, 
"Power Tactics on the Job," in the 
May 1985 issue of Personnel. 

Susan F. Reiner, assistant 
professor of economics, was 
invited by the president of the 
American Economics Associa- 
tion and the director of Eco- 
nomic Studies at the Brookings 
Institute to organize a panel 
session for annual meetings of 
the American Economic 
Association. Her topic is "Gender 
and Race in the Economic 
Curriculum." 

William Garnett, associate 
professor of pharmacy, is chair- 
man-elect of the Section of 
Clinical Pharmacy Practice of 
the American Pharmaceutical 
Association's Academy of Phar- 
macy Practice. 

Mary J. Hageman, assistant 
professor. Department of Admin- 
istration of Justice and Public 
Safety, was the press agent and 
information officer for the na- 
tional annual meeting of the 
Public and Governmental Rela- 
tions Committee for the Acad- 
emy of Criminal Justice Sciences. 
Hageman also is chairman of the 
committee. 

Grace E. Harris, dean of the 
School of Social Work, has been 
appointed commissioner of the 
Commission on Accreditation of 
the Council of Social Work Edu- 
cation. The commission accredits 



undergraduate and graduate 
social work education programs 
in the United States. 

Cliarles E. Hartsoe, chairman 
of the Department of Recreation, 
is president of the American 
Academy for Park and Recrea- 
tion Administration. This summer 
he participated in an educa- 
tional exchange of park, recrea- 
tion, and planning officials with 
the Peoples' Republic of China. 
While in the Far East, he spent a 
week in Japan at the National 
Institute of Fitness and Sports. 

Neil W. Henry, associate 
professor of sociology and an- 
thropology, spoke on "Statistical 
Packages for Microcomputers" 
as a member of a panel discus- 
sion at the Virginia Academy of 
Science's annual spring meeting. 

Jane Ratcliff Hill, director of 
the MCV Hospitals' Physical 
Therapy Clinics, serves as legisla- 
tive chairman for the Virginia 
Physical Therapy Association. 
Last spring, the VPTA awarded 
her its Distinguished Service 
Award. 

Norrece T. Jones, assistant 
professor of history, recently 
presented a paper, "Slave Reli- 
gion in South Carolina: A Heaven 
In Hell?" at the Organization of 
American Historians' convention. 

Altug Kazanoglu, assistant 
professor of removable prostho- 
dontics, presented a continuing 
education course this summer at 
a dental school in Ismir, Turkey. 

J. David Kennamer, assistant 
professor of mass communica- 
tions, presented a paper, "De- 
bate Viewing and Debate Dis- 
cussion as Predictors of Cam- 
paign Cognition," at the Ameri- 
can Association for Public Opin- 
ion Research conference. 

James J. Kinney, associate 
professor of English and director 
of composition and rhetoric, 
published a book. Amalgama- 
tion! Race, Sex, and Rhetoric in 
the Nineteenth-Century Ameri- 
can Novel (Greenwood Press, 
1985). 

Jeanette Kissinger, professor 
of medical-surgical nursing, is 
president-elect of the Virginia 
Nurses Association and was 
awarded the Outstanding Mem- 
ber Award during the VNA con- 
vention this fall. 

Daniel M. Laskin, professor 
and chairman of oral and maxil- 
lofacial surgery, chaired a Na- 
tional Institute of Dental Research 
sponsored consensus develop- 
ment conference on "Anesthesia 
and Sedation in the Dental 
Office." 



Walter Lawrence, Jr., director j 
of the Massey Cancer Center t 
and professor and chairman of 
the Department of Surgical 
Oncology, has been appointed 
to the Board of the Organ Sys- 
tems Coordinating Center of the 
National Cancer Institute. ; 

C. Michael Lohr, associate \ 
professor of mathematical sci- 
ences, was the recipient of the 
Outstanding Mathematics Edu- 
cator Award for 1985 by the 
Greater Richmond Council of ! 
Teachers of Mathematics. | 

Margaret L. May, associate 
professor of biology, published a 
book, t^edical Terminology i 

(Burgess Publishing Co., 1985). j 

Emmy Miller, clinical nurse 
specialist and neuroscience 
clinical associate in the School 
of Nursing and the MCVH De- 
partment of Nursing Services, 
presented the paper "Nursing 
Diagnosis for Neuroscience 
Nurses" at the 1985 annual meet- 
ing of the American Association 
of Neuroscience Nurses in At- 
lanla, Georgia. 

James T. Moore, associate 
professor and chairman of the 
Department of History and Ge- 
ography, has been appointed to 
the Patrick Henry Memorial 
Commission. 

George Munro, associate 
professor of history, recently 
presented a paper "Catherine 
the Great's Charter to the Towns: 
Some Bicentennial Reflections," 
at the Mid-Atlantic Slavic Associ- 
ation's meeting. Munro also has 
been appointed to the editorial 
advisory board of Annual Edi- 
tions: Western Civilization 
(Dushkin Publishing Group). 

Kent G. Palconis, associate 
professor and chairman of the 
Department of Periodontics, has 
been appointed a consultant 
to the American Dental 
Association's Commission on 
Accreditation. 

Dennis Poole, assistant profes- 
sor of social work, is completing 
a funded demonstration project 
in cooperation with the Rich- 
mond Cerebral Palsey Center 
The project, "Supported Work 
Services Employment for Severely 
Physically and Multiply Handi- 
capped Persons," is funded by 
the Administration on Develop- 
mental Disabilities of the U.S. 
Department of Health and Hu- 
man Services. 

James W. Putney, professor of 
pharmacology and toxicology, 
has been elected a Fellow of the 



American Association for the 
Advancement of Science. 

Keith F. Ready, associate 
professor of recreation, coau- 
thored a book. Parks, Preserves 
and Rivers: A Guide to Outdoor 
Adventures in Virginia's Capital 
Region. The comprehensive field 
guide to 88 sites was published 
in August by the Metropolitan 
Foundation. 

Robert Redmon, chairman 
and associate professor of phi- 
losophy and religious studies, has 
been selected as one of the ten 
Exxon Fellows in Medicine and 
Ethics at the Center for Ethics, 
which is cosponsored by Rice 
University and the Baylor College 
of Medicine. 

Philip J. Schwarz, associate 
professor of history, recently 
presented a paper, "Con- 
demned to Hell: The Penal Trans- 
portation of Slaves from Virginia," 
at the Organization of American 
Historians' annual convention. 

Marie Smith, assistant profes- 
sor of pharmacy, has been 
elected national chairman of the 
American Society of Hospital 
Pharmacists Special Interest 
Group on Ambulatory Care. 

Sarah Strauss, assistant pro- 
fessor of maternal-child nursing, 
has been awarded funding by 
Sigma Theta Tau for her project 
"Information Seeking and Infor- 
mation Preference of Hospita- 
lized Surgical Patients." 

Melvin I. Urofsky, professor of 
history, presided at the session, 
"Leo Frank: The Case That Will 
Not Die," at the Organization of 
American Historians' annual 
convention. 

Paul Wehman, professor and 
director. Rehabilitation Research 
and Training Center, has been 
selected a Switzer Scholar by the 
Mary Switzer Memorial Commit- 
tee of the National Rehabilitation 
Association. One of 20 experts 
selected throughout the country, 
Wehman has been recognized 
for his achievements in the field 
of rehabilitation. 

Ann Woodlief, associate 
professor of English, has pub- 
lished a book. In River Time: The 
Way of the James (Algonquin 
Books of Chapel Hill, 1985). 

Joseph Zanga, associate 
professor of pediatrics, was 
elected president of the Virginia 
Auto Safety Alliance. Recently, 
he was keynote speaker for a 
Yale University oediatrics course, 
"New Problems in School Health." 
He also presented "School 
Health: A National Perspective" 
to the Connecticut Association 
for School Health. 



26 



u 



M 



N 



U 



D 



A 



1921 

Waller E. Clark, Sr. (D.D S ) retired 
in Greensboro, North Carolina, in 
January 1973 after practicing dentis- 
try in Astievilie, North Carolina, for 52 
years. 

1932 

Minnie Esther Thome (nursing) of 
Elm City, North Carolina, was elected 
to ttie Executive Board of Directors, 
Tar River Chapter of the American 
Association of Retired Persons, for a 
four-year term. She is a retired super- 
visor of public health nursing in North 
Carolina. 

1933 

Edward Williamson Perkins III 

(M.D,), chief of McGuire V.A. Medical 
Center opthalmology service from 
1946-72, w/as honored in April at a 
reception during vi/hich his portrait 
was hung in the eye clinic. Perkins 
was largely responsible for the 1972 
establishment of the opthalmology 
residency program on the MCV 
Campus. 

1935 

Mildred Brynberg Forman (M D ), 

a family physician in Wilmington, 
Delaware, for more than 45 years, 
closed her office on October 15, 1985. 

Woodrow W. Tyson (M D ), a High 
Point, North Carolina, physician of 
internal medicine and cardiology, 
has retired. Recently he was honored 
by the Guilford County Medical 
Society with a 50-year medical pin 



VIRGINIA COMMONWEALTH UNIVERSITY 
ALUMNI COUNCIL 



1947 



G. Edward Calvert [M D ) is 

retiring from an active medical 
practice in Lynchburg. 

Charles H. Meeks (M D.) has been 
awarded honorary medical staff 




If you did not buy a class ring as 
a student, you can novi/ order 
one. Rings for men and women 
are available in a variety of 
sizes. For more information and 
a price list, write for a ring order 
kit. If you graduated before 
1968, please indicate Medical 
College of Virginia, if applica- 
ble, when ordering a kit. Write 
for the kit — and for information 
about VCU watches — to 
VCU Alumni Activities 
828 West Franklin Street 
Richmond, VA 23284-0001 



Nursing Division 
Crxjirrnon 
DcyoihvS Ciowder 



Mary Beth PoppOS 



Busirei; Divii 
Prejicte"! 



Community arxd Public Altoiis 
Division Presidenl 
James D f o> 



Social WcnV Divisior 
Pre$K»ni 
Denies© C Eirofd 



Humanilies ond Sciences 
Drvmofi Piesident 
Beniomin S Hymon 



status in the Department of Anesthesi- 
ology and will continue as choirmon 
emeritus of the department at St. 
fVlary's Hospital in Richmond, 

1951 

James D. Faber (D.D.S.) retired in 
September 1985 from an active 
dental practice in Belle, West Virginia. 
He continues as president of Delta 
Dental Plan of West Virginia, having 
served it for 23 years, 

1952 

David Z. Morgan (M D ) of 

Morgontown. West Virginia, was 
inaugurated as president of the West 
Virginia State Medical Association in 
August to succeed Carl J. Roncag- 
lione (M.D. 1951) of Charleston, West 
Virginia. 

1954 

Archibald C. Wagner (M.D ) of 
Warrenton was elected president of 
the Virginia Chapter of the American 
College of Radiology 

1955 

William R. O'Connell, Jr, (B S 

music education) became the eighth 
president of New England College 
He was inaugurated in October. 

1957 

Percy Wootton (M.D.) a Richmond 
cardiologist, has been named to the 
council on legislation for the Ameri- 
can Medical Association, 

1958 

Jane Triplett Carswell (M D.) has 

practiced medicine for 23 years in 
Lenoir, North Carolina. In 1983 she 
was named North Carolina's Family 
Doctor of the Year and in 1984 the 
American Academy of Family Physi- 
cians honored her as the U.S. Family 
Doctor of the Year 

1959 

Warren R, Belts (MS hospital 
administration) has been elected 
regent for Missouri in the American 
College of Healthcare Executives and 
chairman of the Board of Examiners 
of the American College of Osteo- 
pathic Hospital Administrators. He is 



with a subsidiary company of Chris- 
tian Health Services Development 
Corporation in St, Louis, Missouri. 

David L. Via (D.D.S.) of Richmond 
has been elected treasurer of the 
Emory and Henry Alumni Association. 

1962 

Austin B. Harrelson (M D ) has 

been elected vice-president of the 
Virginia Neurological Society, 

Marvin Russell (B,S, social science/ 
recreation) has been inducted as 
president of the Golf Coaches Associ- 
ation of the Notional Association of 
Intercollegiate Athletics (NAIA), 
Russell is entering his 11th year as golf 
coach and assistant professor of 
recreation management at Shorter 
College in Rome. Georgia. 

1963 

Francis F. Carr. Jr. (D.D S ) of 
Richmond was awarded a fellowship 
by The American College of Dentists 

1966 

Frederick P, Alpern (M D ) has 

completed a psychiatry residency 
and is now director of the admissions 
program at Crownsville State Hospital 
in Maryland He also has a private 
practice in psychiatry. 

R. Lewis Armistead (DDS) of 
Virginia Beach was awarded a 
fellowship by The American College 
of Dentists. 

George E. Stone III (BS. education 
and physical education) of Rich- 
mond has been appointed tourna- 
ment manager of Executive Sports, 
Inc., a professional golf tournament 
management company Stone is 
responsible for organizing and pro- 
ducing professional golf tournaments 
on behalf of tournament sponsors 
around the world. 

1967 

Donald L. Mowles (B S pharmacy) 
has been promoted to product 
manager. Small Volume Parenterals 
and Anesthesia Dajgs, Abbott Labo- 
ratories Hospital Products Division, in 
Abbott Park, Illinois. 

1968 

Terry Nackley Bernier (B S sociol- 
ogy) has been appointed marketing 
director for Full Circle Fitness Center, 
a health and fitness center for 
women, in Charlottesville, She also 



DO you have news about 
yourself for ttie VCU 
IVIagazine ' fvlail your 
updates to VCU Magazine, 
Alumni Update, 826 West Franklin 
Street, fiichmond, VA 23284- 
0001. 

Sometimes we do not get your 
information in ttie issue you might 
expect, but we make every effort 
to print your updates as soon as 
possibie. Be patient, and look for 
your update in the next issue. 
Write to us. 



freelances in commercial advertising, 
specializing in writing and recording 
radio commerciols. 

1969 

Stephen L. Bissell (DDS) of 
Petersburg was awarded a fellowship 
by The American College of Dentists. 

David C, Elmore (BS. accounting) 
has been elected a senior vice- 
president of Days Inns of America, 
Inc., in Atlanta. 

Richard Moss (B.S. pharmacy. M.S. 
hospital pharmacy administration, 
1978) is the associate director of 
pharmacy at Baptist Medical Center- 
Princeton in Birmingham, Alabama. 
Since 1979 he hod been with the 
University of Alabama at Birmingham 
Hospital coordinating and computer- 
izing an ambulatory pharmacy 
department. 

Joseph C. Nuora (M.D.) is the new 
president of the medical staff at 
Richmond's Retreat Hospital. 

1970 

Gary K, Johnson (B S business 
management) has been appointed 
to the Community Corrections Re- 
source Board of the Chesterfield 
County Board of Supervisors. He is 
vice-president of Custom Metal 
Fabricators at the Chesterfield County 
Airport Industrial Park. 

Barbara J, Limandri (BS. nursing) 
has a private therapy practice in 
Berkeley, California, and is working in 
community mental health in Marin 
County. She received her D.N S. in 
mental health nursing from the Univer- 
sity of California-Son Francisco in 
June 1985. 

Charlotte B, McCutchen (M D ) 
has been appointed associate 
professor of neurology at Georgetown 
University in Washington, DC. 

Michael D. Moore (B FA com- 
munication arts and design) and 
Rebecca Atkins Moore (B FA 
fashion design) of Louisa County have 
signed a recording and publishing 
contract in Nashville with Greentree 
Records, on adult contemporary 
christian music recording company 

1971 

Raymond W. Brewer (B S adminis- 
tration) has been appointed senior 
vice-president of Barclays American 
Corporation He resides in Matthews, 
North Carolina. 



27 



John Elwood Owens (M D ) in 

private practice in Sioux City. Iowa, 
has been elected to fellowship in the 
American College of Cardiologv 

1972 

Richard J. Andrassy (M D ) is 
professor and chief of the Division of 
Pediatric Surgery at the University of 
Texas Health Science Center in 
Houston. Texas. 

Ronald A. Boatwrighl (B S adnnin- 
istration of justice) is stationed in South 
Korea. He is a special agent with the 
U.S. Army Criminal Investigation 
Command, previously assigned to 
Foil McClellan. Alabama 

Walter T. Judd (M.S. physiology), 
major in the U.S. Air Force, has been 
decorated with the Meritorious Ser- 
vice Medal at Tyndall Air Force Base, 
Florida. The medal is awarded for 
outstanding noncombat meritorious 
achievement or service to the United 
States. 

Richard Keith Kittinger (B S. 
pharmacy) was presented the A.H. 
Robins "Bowl of Hygeia" award for 
community service during the Virginia 
Pharmaceutical Association annual 
meeting. 

1973 

Steven H. Grossman (M D ) has 
been promoted to senior clinical 
research scientist in the clinical 
pharmacokinetics/dynamics division 
of Burroughs Wellcome Co in Re- 
search Triangle Parte. North Carolina. 

Charles Mcleod (M.Ed, counselor 
education), former VCU basketball 
player (1966-68) and former associ- 
ate director for research in University 
Enrollment Services, has been named 
director of academic counseling in 
VCU's athletic department. 

Carolina S. Pace (Ph.D. physiol- 
ogy) is professor of physiology and 
biophysics at the University of Ala- 
bama at Birmingham. She has re- 
ceived a grant from the Alabama 
affiliate of the American Diabetes 
Association to study rats with sponta- 
neous diabetes. 

Elizabeth R. Stanaski Stewart (B S. 
nursing) of the US Army Nurse Corps, 
has been transferred from Augsburg. 
Germany, to San Francisco. 

1974 

Frederick S. Arnold (M D ), a 

diplomote of the American Board of 
Urology, announces the opening of 
his practice in urology in Gloucester, 

Trent Nicholas (B.F A. painting and 
printmaking) is wort<ing toward his 
Master's in Cinema Studies at New 
Yort( University, This past spring he 
presented a paper to the NYU Stu- 
dent Cinema Studies Conference on 
director Fritz Lang and his comic 
book sensibility. He also presented a 
paper in the spring at the Popular 
Culture Association Conference in 
Louisville. Kentucky, on the topic of 
local film exhibition in America. 

Monica f. Rascoe (B S psychol- 
ogy) has been appointed director of 
the Center for Minority Student Affairs 
at Georgetown University. 



1975 

Kenneth O, Drees (M.S. hospital 
administration) has been appointed 
director of personnel and administra- 
tive services, USAF Medical Center, 
Wright-Patterson Air Force Base in 
Dayton, Ohio. 

Henry Lowenstein (B S business 
administration and management) 
has been appointed director of 
education for the principal Kemper 
Group insurance companies in Long 
Grove, Illinois. He also is a member of 
the Academy of Management, the 
American Society of Personnel Ad- 
ministration, the American Society for 
Training and Development, the 
Industrial Relations Research Associa- 
tion. Omicron Delta Epsilon Honor 
Society, the Society of Personnel 
Administrators, and the Transportation 
Research Forum. He serves as associ- 
ate editor of the Journal of Manage- 
ment Case Studies and consults on 
mass transit and education issues for 
the Illinois General Assembly 

Edward C. Morris (M.S. sociology) 
has been named regional adminis- 
trator for Adult Institutions in the 
Virginia Corrections Department's 
Northern Region in Fairfax. 

David P. Paul III (D D S ) was 
recently elected to membership in 
the Pierre Fauchard Academy, an 
international organization of dentists 
who have made outstanding contri- 
butions to art and science of dentistry 
or to society. He is an adjunct instruc- 
tor in VCU's School of Dentistry. 

George H, M. Roper (B S business 
administration) has been promoted to 
assistant vice-president at the Sovran 
Mortgage Corporation in Richmond. 

1976 

Sally A. Gravely (B.S. mass com- 
munications) has switched careers 
from retail advertising to public 
relations as program assistant for the 
YWCA of the Roanoke Valley, 

Stephen C. Harvey (M Ed admin- 
istration and supervision; B.S, health 
and physical education, 1970) repre- 
sented VCU at a Charter Day Convo- 
cation of Liberty University in Lynch- 
burg this September, 

Scott L. McCarney (BE A com- 
munication arts and design) is pre- 
paring wort( for an exhibition with five 

I other book artists, opening this fall at 
the Metropolitan Museum of Art in 

I New Yort<. He has been in a number 
of shows in Boston, Houston, San 
Francisco, and the USIA American 
Bookwort<s in Pnn^ exhibition traveling 
in Europe and Africa. He also re- 
ceived an Artist-in-Residence Fellow- 
ship from Ugtitwort< in Syracuse, New 
Yort<, to wort< on photographic books. 
In addition to freelance design 
assignments, McCarney continues 
doing design and production for the 
magazine. Afterimage. 

A. Carole Pratt (D D S.) of Dublin 
was elected chairman of the Virginia 
Board of Health at the July 1985 
meeting. 

Willis S. Sanders (MS hospital 
administration) has been appointed 



administrator of Autauga Medical 
Center in Prattville, Alabama. The 
center is managed by AmeriHealth, 
Inc, of Atlanta. Georgia, Sanders 
formerly was assistant administrator of 
Metropolitan Hospital in Richmond. 

1977 ^ ^ 

Dorothy Smith Crowder (MS 

nursing; B.S. nursing, 1974) of Peters- 
burg was a delegate from District 13 
to the Virginia Nurses Association this 
fall. 

Eric R. Frykberg (M.D.) is currently 
serving in the U.S. Naval Reserve and 
hos been appointed assistant profes- 
sor of surgery. University of Florida 
School of Medicine, at University 
Hospital in Jacksonville, Florida, 

Mark L. Shanks (B,F,A. communi- 
cation arts and design) is in charge 
of the art department at W. M. Brown 
& Son, Inc, a color printing company 
in Richmond. He also is a freelance 
graphic designer and photographer. 

1978 

Amy L. Caftrey (B.S. psychology) 
has been the program manager for 
ttie last three years of a group home 
for emotionally disturbed and abused 
giris aged 10-18 in the Lincoln Child 
Center in Oakland, California, She 
also is a successful poet and political 
activist, 

Linda A. Doss (B.S. nursing) has 
resigned as head nurse of pediatrics 
at PHS Hospital in Bethel Alaska, and 
will be 'mushing her dog team" 250 
miles to her new home in the village 
of Red Devil 

Barbara Bailey Fernandez (MS 
rehabilitation counseling; B.S. elemen- 
tary education. 1975) has been 
appointed director of communica- 
tions for the Notional Association of 
Private Psychiatric Hospitals in Wash- 
ington, DC 

Lee Thomas Helms (M D ) has 
completed his military service as staff 
ophthalmologist at Jacksonville. 
Florida Naval Hospital and has joined 
the Salem, Virginia Eye Center. 

Caroline Ramsdell Kerns (M S W) 
is o second-year law student of 
George Mason University School of 
Low in Ariington. 

1979 

Anne Farley (B.S. business; B.S. 
accounting, 1977) has been pro- 
moted to senior manager in the New 
Yort< office of Peat Marwick, an 
international public accounting firm. 

Thomas W. Goggin (B S biology) 
received this year's Sir William Osier 
Award at Eostern Virginia Medical 
School, where he Is a resident in 
obstetrics and gynecology. The 
award honors him as the outstanding 
resident in his class. 

James A. Hall (M.D.) has com- 
pleted the U.S. Air Force military 
indoctrination for medical service 
officers at Sheppard Air Force Base, 
Texas, and will be stationed at Keesler 
Air Force Base, Mississippi. 

Patricia C. Hassard (MS moss 
communications), director of public 
relations for Johnston-Willis Hospital in 
Richmond, has been named one of 



the Outstanding Young Women of 
America, 

Ed Kanis (B.S. mass communica- 
tions) has been promoted to corpo- 
rate director of community relations 
by the West Jersey Health System, 
New Jersey's largest multi-hospital 
system. In this capacity he will be 
responsible for directing the public 
relations efforts of West Jersey's four 
hospitals, home health care agency, 
same-day surgery center, family 
health centers, and numerous affili- 
ated organizations. 

Judy Butler Thomas (B S. phar- 
macy) of Decatur, Georgia, has been 
promoted to pharmacy coordinator 
for Kroger Company's Southland 
mart<eting area, which covers four 
Southern states. 

William S. White (B.S pharmacy) 
has been promoted to manager of 
new product planning in the pharma- 
ceutical division of A. H. Robins 
Company. 

1980 

Patrick D. Crowson (B.S. adminis- 
tration of justice and public safety). 
Air National Guard Airman 1st Class, 
graduated from the U.S. Air Force 
nondestructive inspection course at 
Chanute Air Force Base, Illinois. 
Crowson will serve at Byrd Interna- 
tional Airport in Richmond. 

Allen J. McBride (M.D.; B.S. chem- 
istry, 1974) has been promoted to 
assistant professor of family and 
community medicine at the Bowman 
Gray School of Medicine in Winston- 
Salem, North Carolina. He continues 
to serve as assistant director of the 
Family Medicine Residency Training 
Program. 

Jane C. Pendergrass (B S. health 
care management) is the administra- 
tor of Hillside Manor in Kingsport, 
Tennessee. 

Dave Phillips (B.S. business admin- 
istration and management) was 
elected 1985 president of the VCU 
Rams Club. 

Richard D. Pleasants (MS. health 
administration), a health service staff 
administrator with the First Tactical 
Fighter Wing, has been transferred 
from West Germany to Langley Air 
Force Base, Virginia. 

1981 

Anton M. Allen, Jr. (M D ) has 

finished a radiology residency, and 
Deborah Goode Allen (M D.) has 
finished on internal medicine resi- 
dency at the Medical University of 
South Carolina. They are both enter- 
ing private practice In BIytheville. 
Art<ansas. 

Bruce N. Bossart (M.S. health 
administration) has been decorated 
with the Meritorious Service Medal for 
outstanding non-combat achieve- 
ment at Lackland Air Force Base, San 
Antonio, Texas. He is an executive 
officer with the Wllford Hall U.S. Air 
Force Medical Center. 
Jeffrey D. Campbell (B S. biology) 
' has been decorated with the Army 
Achievement Medal at Fort Lewis, 
Washington. The Achievement Medal 



28 



Burn victims often l^arn that the pain o/ 
treatment may exceed that (if the <m^- 
nal trauma. Stephanie Byrd Thomas, 
whu paduated from VCU in 1984 u>itfi 
a Bachekn of Science in mass communi- 
cations, knows from experience: she 
spent two months in the burn unit of 
MCV Hospitals following a car accident 
in which she received severe fcurns. 
Thomas, by recounting her own experi- 
ence, hopes to ''help other patients 
understand and show them that, m the 
end, all the hard work and efforts are 
wmth it." 

By Stephanie Byrd Thomas 

Remember how it feels when you 
burn your finger badly Now 
multiply that feeling. Imagine 
waking up one morning, feeling 
that way all over, becoming 
aware of your total being. Every 
nerve ending is throbbing. You 
have been severely burned, 

Next, you ore In a hydraulic lift, 
completely naked, and being 
rolled off to a whirlpool bath by 
a man you have never seen 
before. "Don't worry, we don't 
look anymore," says the stranger 

Realizing that this is reality is 
horrifying. Going back to the 
scene years later sent shivers 
down my spine. When I returned 
to the burn unit at MCV Hospitals, 
where I was treated for severe 
burns from an automobile acci- 
dent, I felt for these patients. I 
looked at them shaking continu- 
ously from the cold, though I 
knew it was steamy hot in the 
ward. I heard the groans of those 
patients being tubbed. Debride- 
ment (cleansing) of burn wounds 
is just something the patient must 
go through twice a day. 

I returned to the burn unit to 
talk to the doctors and nurses 
and to compare my own experi- 
ence with others. This would help 
me understand what I went 
through and how I got through It. 
At the same time, I thought, 
perhaps I could be helpful to 
other patients — to show them 
that. In the end, all the hard work 
and effort are worth It. 

Burns are measured In de- 
grees; first, second, and third 
degree. First degree is the most 
superficial; In most cases, a scab 
forms leaving very little or no 
scarring. Second degree, after 
debridement, still allows the 
body to heal and grow new skin. 
But there Is more scarring. Third 
degree is the most severe. "By 
definition, third degree means 




'will not heal,' " said Dr B. W. 
Haynes, burn surgeon at MCV 
Hospitals. That means new skin 
will not grow back. Third degree 
burns reguire resurfacing, a 
process of skin grafting which 
involves transplanting living tissue 
to the wound. In effect, the body 
must be relnjured in order to heal 
the burns. 

Such factors as age, the per- 
centage of -body surface burned 
(In addition to the degree of the 
burn), and previous psychiatric 
history affect the rate of healing. 
The younger the patient, the 
more energy he or she can put 
toward healing. Older people 
may decide they have experi- 
enced a full life and are too tired 
to struggle. Sometimes, they 
simply stop fighting for life. 

The percentage of the body 
surface burned plays a role In 
the psychological adjustment to 
the burns. "The more scarring, the 
more adjustment problems will 
occur," said Haynes. 

"The patient's prior adjustment 
to catastrophe is the major fac- 
tor," he said. It has been proven 
clinically that emotional factors 
or attitudes have considerable 
Influence on the patient's rate of 
recovery. According to Haynes, 
patients can become upset, 
withdrawn, uncommunicative, 
combative — or "working opti- 
mists." "The "working optimists' will 
recover more rapidly," said 
Haynes. 

Getting patients to eat reveals 
whether they will fight or with- 
draw. There are no medications 
that can heal burns; the best 
healing mechanism is food — 
calories — lots of them. Eating 
8,000 calories a day is more 



difficult than it might sound; 
when you are burned, you don't 
feel like eating. But It Is crucial to 
healing. For some patients, 
being told by doctors and nurses 
that eating is the only way they 
will get out of the burn unit 
makes them eat. 

In addition to three large 
meals, milkshakes arrive 15 min- 
utes after breakfast. Patients do 
not drink water for fluids — water 
has no calories. "How about 
orange juice," a nurse will ask. 

Walter Dewveall, a 25-year- 
old patient, said, "I never used to 
eat breakfast before I got here. 
They really encourage you to eat 
because that's what heals you. 
You eat all the time, even during 
the night when they bring you 
sandwiches." Dewveall, who had 
been in the unit for eight months, 
was burned over 80 percent of 
his body. He had second and 
third degree burns. The 20 per- 
cent unaffected was used for 
skin grafting. 

"The donor sites hurt more than 
the burns," DevA/eall said, "Espe- 
cially when they pulled off the 
gauze." Gauze must be put over 
the area where healthy skin has 
been removed. The wound site 
heals over the gauze, forming a 
scab. Then, the gauze is re- 
moved. Underneath, there is 
nice, new pink skin. 

The whirlpool bath for debride- 
ment is another therapy. Burned 
skin is scrubbed; what can't be 
removed by this method is taken 
off with tweezers and scissors in a 
slow, painstaking process. 

"The goal is to hit healthy 
tissue," explained occupational 



therapist Annette Ernst. "The 
hardest thing is making patients 
understand why you are hurting 
them so much." 

Ernst also helps with self-care 
adaptations. For the patient with 
burned hands, for example, the 
aim is to help them learn to feed 
themselves again. She works with 
patients until they can close their 
hands around a large rubber 
tube that fits over the handles of 
eating utensils. 

"Encouragement, reassurance, 
and emotional support are the 
best things we can do for the 
patients," said Ernst. 

Haynes noted, "I make rounds 
each day and give the patient a 
progress report: look,' I say, 'your 
wounds are healing. Those little 
white things in there mean skin is 
growing.' " The "little white things" 
are epithalium buds, another 
name for skin cells. 

Support from family and 
friends is critical; hospital staff 
are supportive, but they are used 
to the environment of ttie burn 
unit. "Patients need to see excite- 
ment and encouragement from 
their visitors to continue with their 
progress," Haynes said. 

DeviA/eall agreed that special 
people work In the burn unit. "It 
may sound obvious, but it is 
good to have people around 
you all the time who know what 
they're doing. These people are 
good. They work witti you and 
understand you to a certain 
extent." 

Jeanne Pugh, a nurse in the 
unit, said she enjoys working 
there. "Seeing the progress each 
day is satisfying. Watching them 
walk out of here Is great." She 
knew I understood; she watched 
me walk out of there. 

Pugh has been working in the 
burn unit for 26 years, three days 
a week. "I couldn't do it full- 
time," she said. "It would be too 
taxing — emotionally, physically, 
and psychologically. Really, all 
three." 

Dewveall recalled anticipat- 
ing the day he would be able to 
leave. "It was so long since I had 
been outside the ward. Only on 
four occasions did I leave those 
halls — to go to operating rooms," 

"I'm not sure I could go through 
this again," said Dewveall. "I 
know if it were this bad again, I 
couldn't do it." 

That's the way many of us feel, 
even though, ironically, we got 
through the ordeal. The fear of 
the known overtakes the fear of 
the unknown. 

Photography by Chip Mitchell. 



29 



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I is awarded to soldiers for meritorious 
service and acts of courage. Camp- 
bell is a biomedical equipment 
repairer witti the 62nd Medical 
Group. 

Charles E. Gaskins III (DOS) 
announces the opening of his peri- 
odontics practice in Richmond. 

Martha Edwards Hart (MS nurs- 
ing; B.S. nursing, 1975), a clinicol 
specialist at MCV Hospitals, received 
the Virginia Nurse of the Year March 
of Dimes Award during the Virginia 
Nurses Association meeting. 

Christopher Mahood Hicks (M D ) 
has been decorated with the Bronze 
Star Medal for meritorious achieve- 
ment at Walter Reed Medical Center, 
Washington, D.C. 

Willoughby S. Hundley III (M D ) 
has completed his appointment as 
director of the emergency room at 
Community Hospitol in South Hill and 
has opened a family practice at the 
Boydton Medical Center. 

John J. Salley, Jr. (Ph D pharma- 
cology) has been promoted to 
section head in the Product Develop- 
ment Division of Norwich Eaton 
Pharmaceuticals, New York. Salley 
came to Norwich Eaton in 1981 from 
the University of Alabama, Tusca- 
loosa, where he was a postdoctoral 
research associate in the chemistry 
department. 

Herman Williams III (B.S. adminis- 
tration of justice and public safety), 
captain, completed the military 
police (MP) officer advanced course 
in the U.S. Army Military Police School, 
Fort McClellan, Alabama. 



Zip Code 



Telephone Number Title 

Send to 

Alumni Records Officer 
VCU Alumni Activities 
828 West Franklin Street 
Richmond, VA 23284-0001 
(804) 257-1228 

Important Note: If this magazine is 
addressed to an alumnus who no 
longer lives at the address printed on 
the address label, please advise us 
so that we can correct our records. If 
you know the person's correct 
address, we would appreciate that 
information. Also, if a husband and 
wife ore receiving more than one 
copy of the magazine, we would like 
to know so that we can avoid 
duplicate mailings. Please provide 
the names of both individuals plus the 
wife's maiden name, if appropriate. 



1982 

Mary E. Brooking (B S psychology 
and English) received a Ph.D. in 
English at Rice University's 72nd 
Commencement this past May. 

Arthur S. Freeman (Ph D pharma- 
cology) has completed a postdoc- 
toral fellowship at Yale University. 
Freeman has accepted a staff scien- 
tist position in the laboratory of neuro- 
physiology at Sinai Hospital, Detroit, 
Michigan. 

Brian E. Gooch (M H A ) was 
advanced in the American College 
of Hospital Administrators from nomi- 
nee to member status, after success- 
fully passing both an oral and written 
examination 

Norma Hilliard (B FA communi- 
cation arts and design) of Richmond 
published a poem in the September 
3 issue of Style magazine 

Richard H, Hoffman (M D ) is 
commander of the 13th Medical 
Detachment, 7th Medical Command. 
in West Germany. 

Charles V. Hughes (M D ) is open- 
ing a private practice in Denver City, 
Texas. He was the recipient of the 
1985 Family Medicine Resident 
Award from Texas Tech Health Sci- 
ences Center. 



Steven J. Lancaster (M.D ) of 
Nepture, Florida, is in an orthopedic 
residency program and recently has 
been published in Orthopedics and 
Clinical Orthopedics and Related 
Research 

Pauline A. Miller (B S business 
administration and management) 
has been promoted to commercial 
casualty underwriter at U.S.F.& G. 
Insurance Company in Richmond. 

French Moore III (D D S ) and 
Laura Olson Moore (B S physical 
therapy, 1981) are returning to Vir- 
ginia. He has been practicing dentis- 
try for the US. Army for three years in 
Germany, while she has been in a 
German private physical therapy 
practice. 

John C, Parker (B.S pharmacy) 
has opened his own pharmacy and 
medicine shop in Portsmouth. 

1983 

Philip L. Comer (MS hospital 
administration) has accepted a 
position as assistant administrator at 
Highsmifh-Rainey Memorial Hospital, 
an affiliate of Hospital Corporation of 
America in Fayetteville, North 
Carolina. 

Ross I. Heisman (D.D.S.) is head of 
a Glen Burnie, Maryland, multi- 
specialty group called Arundel 
Dental Corps; Patricia Wilmoth 
Heisman (B.S. medical technology, 
1979) is head of the chemistry depart- 
ment at Greater Baltimore Medical 
Center in Towson, Maryland. 

Mark Alan Hudson (MS hospital 
administration) of Shelby, North 
Carolina, was elected to the Govern- 
ing Board of Western North Carolina 
Health Systems Agency. He has been 
named vice-president, ancillary 
services in the corporate reorganiza- 
tion of Cleveland Memorial Hospital, 
Inc. 

Anne N. Meyer (M.B.A.; B S. English 
education, 1981) is a treasury analyst 
for Greyhound Capital Corporation, a 
subsidiary of Greyhound Corporation, 
in Phoenix, Arizona. 

Bruce A. Miller (M.D), on comple- 
tion of a family practice residency, 
will join his father, R. E. Miller (M D , 
1957), in a practice in Hopewell. 

Donald L, Newcomb (B S distribu- 
tive education) has been promoted 
to director of human resources for the 
Virginia Region of Bon Secours Health 
System, Inc , in Richmond 

Sherry L. Perkins (B.S. mathemati- 
cal sciences) was commissioned a 
second lieutenant after graduating 
from Officer Training School at Lack- 
I land Air Force Base, Texas. Perkins is 
assigned to Scott Air Force Base, 
Illinois 

Robin R. Pond (B.S. medical 
technology) has completed the U.S. 
Air Force military indoctrination for 
medical service officers at Sheppard 
Air Force Base, Texas, and will be 
stationed at Plattsburgh Air Force 
Base, New York. 



Joyce D. Prince (B.S. nursing) of 
Cherokee, North Carolina, is working 
in obstetrics nursing as a commis- 
sioned officer in ttie U.S. Public Health 
Service, Deportment of Health and 
Human Services. Indian Health 
Service. 

1984 

Albert R. Cantora (M.S. political 
science), captain, has been assigned 
to Kelly Air Force Base. San Antonio. 
Texas. Cantara, a clinical psychology 
resident with the Wilford Hall Medical 
Center, was previously assigned at 
Sheppard Air Force Base, Texas. 

William F. Costello (B S business 
administration and management) of 
Richmond has been appointed senior 
vice-president and chief financial 
officer of Best Products Co., Inc. 
Costello is responsible for accounting, 
finance, and tax areas. 

Mitchel L. Friedman (D DS ) has 
completed his general practice 
residency at Monmouth Medical 
Center in Long Branch. New Jersey. 
and now has a private practice in 
Fair Haven. New Jersey. 

J. Norman Hall (B S business 
administration and management) is 
the credit and collections manager 
of Robertshaw Controls Company. 
International Operations. Richmond. 

Sonya M. Hutchins (B S psychol- 
ogy) was commissioned a second 
lieutenant after graduating from 
Officer Training School at Lackland 
Air Force Base. Texas. Hutchins is 
assigned to Holloman Air Force Base. 
New Mexico. 

Colleen M. Ptochick (B S rehabili- 
tation services) has accepted a 
position at St. Mary's Hospital in 
Amsterdam. New York, as an alcohol- 
ism counselor. She will be in charge 
of the hospital's Drinking Driving 
Program. 

Norma Richardson (MA English; 
B.A. English. 1975) of Richmond was 
named first place winner in the 1985 
Writer's D/gesf writing competition. 
(Richardson's poem. 'Ricochet. " was 
chosen the best entry among thou- 
sands of poems received in this year's 
contest, which also included entries 
in short story, article, and script 
categories. 

1985 

Janet L. Harvey (B.S nursing) has 
completed the U.S. Air Force military 
indoctrination for medical service 
officers at Sheppard Air Force Base. 
Texas, and will be stationed at Wright- 
Patterson Air Force Base. Ohio. 



30 



VCU BOOKSTORE 



ST/** 




,f 



Decorative glassware, quality 
finish), beautiful style. Eacti em- 
bossed witti ttie VCU seal: 

9 oz. Old Fashion #818/$2.75 

10 oz. Tumbler #81 2/$2.50 
IV2 oz. Stiot glass #2211/$1.95 
6 in. Astitray #800/$4.99 

15 oz, Tankard #205/$5.49 

Automatic self-opening um- 
brella. 50-incti spread. 100% 
nylon, black and gold, em- 
bossed with the VCU seal. 
#7158/$8.99 

Stuffed animals. White ram orna- 
mented with a black and gold 
VCU ribbon and black felt cape, 
8" high. #8/$8.99 

Collegiate mug, handsomely 
trimmed in gold. 4" high, 3V4" 
dia.,15oz. #M155/$8.99 

Deluxe feature college mug. 
Multicolor seal on a white back- 
ground. Classic lines, 5V2" high, 
3V2" dia., 20 oz. #M204/$14.99 

Barclay Sheaks (VCU alumnus 

'49) prints, unframed: 
Ginter House #AA4A 
Egyptian Building #AA4B 

Each measures 14V2" x 12". $25 

Notched cylinder ashtray, 7" dia. 
#Ar-20/$9.99 



Classic felt pennant. 8" x 24". 
#157/$2.25 

Polyester and mesh baseball 
cap with adjustable snap tab 
back, 2" VCU flocked lettering 
on front. #308/$4.99 

Coffee mug. All time favorite with 
coffee drinkers. Generous 10 oz. 
size. 33/4" high, 3V4" dia. #DM20/ 
$4.99 





Queen Anne bread and butter 
plate. An elegant rendering of 
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7" dia. #10Z-0442/$14.99 

Tavern mug. Heavy custom 
crested pewter-look tankard. 
43/4" high. 17 oz. #166-0812/ 
$19.99 

VCU Mirrors 
Two of the Egyptian Building on 

the MCV Campus #AA3A 
One of Ginter House on the 

Academic Campus #AA3B 
One of the James Branch 
Cabell Library #AA3C 
These framed mirrors measure 14" 
X 26" with the pictures in the 
upper portion of the mirror mea- 
suring IIV2" X 6'/2". $125 

Rich looking embroidered 
placket shirt, rib knit cuff, and 
soft fashion collar Adult sizes S, 
M, L, XL; black and lemon, 
#052X/$15.99 



Desk items, etched cultured 
marble with VCU seal; 
Paperweight 3V4" $15 
Bookends 4V2" x 6V2", 7 lbs. 

$60 
Desk Box 4" x 7'/2" $60 
Pen Set 4" x 91/2" $45 
Memo Pad Holder 4" x 9V2" 
$35 

VCU men's neckties. Attractive 
navy background with small 
gold VCU seals. #AA1/$15 



Solid brass key ring engraved 
with the VCU seal. #5B-K/$3.49 

Black enamel arm chairs, with 
VCU seal on the back of the 
chair and cherry-colored arms. 
#AA2/$165 

Pullover hooded sweat-shirt with 
trim color accented hood lining, 
sleeve stripes, and roglan piping. 
Muff styled front pocket. 50% 
cotton, 50% polyester Adult sizes 
S, M, L, XL; purple, #799/$19.99 

Basic sweat. Comfort makes this 
50% cotton, 50% polyester 
sweatshirt a year-round favorite. 
Classic raglan sleeves. Adult 
sizes S, M, L, XL; fuschia, navy, 
banana, lavendar, black, 
#3051F/$9.99 Children's sizes 6- 
8, 10-12, 14-16; navy, #3051F/ 
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Tackle twill hooded sweatshirt. 
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weight fleece of 50% cotton, 
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matching sweatpant, #P550/ 
$8.99 



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sweatshirt, raglan shoulders, rib 
knit cuffs and waistband. Muff 
pocket with reinforced stitching. 
Adult sizes S, M, L, XL; gold and 
black on white #798A/$14.99; 
red and navy on white $18.99 



VCU Campus Bookstore 
900 Pork Avenue 
Richmond, VA 23284-0001 

Item # Quantity Description 



Size 



Price 



Total 



Send orders with desired form of payment. Returns requesting a 
change ot size or item due to customer error will require an additional 
$2 handling charge. Make check payable to VCU Campus 
Bookstore, or use credit card. 

Please charge to my □ VISA or □ MasterCard 



Credit Card Number Exp. Dote: Mo Yr 

If MasterCard, enter four digits above your name here: 



Virginia Sales Tax 4% 



Signature 
Stiip to 



Stiipping, tiandling, jj gg 
and insurance 
(clioirs $10) 

Total $ 



Nome 



Address 



City 



State 



Zip Code 



31 




ALUMNI TRAVEL 



Christmas Abroad: 
London/Paris Theatre 
Tour 

December 26, 1985-January 9, 
1986 

The Department of Theatre is 
offering its seventh study tour to 
London and Paris. This tour in- 
cludes five nights in Paris, where 
you may enjoy the Comedie- 
Francaise, the opera, the Folies 
Bergeres, and a guided tour of 
Paris and Versailles. Travel will be 
provided by boat-train to Lon- 
don for eight nights, five tickets to 
the best of London theatre and a 
half-day tour of London are 
included. Ample time is allowed 
for shopping and other day trips. 
The study group is open to VCU 
students, alumni, and other 
interested adults. The full price is 
$1 ,825 per person. 



The Homestead Ski 
Weekend 
February 7-9, 1986 

For a special price of $110 per 
person per night for double 
occupancy, you will enjoy an 
elegant room with breakfast and 
dinner daily. All lift tickets for 
Friday, Saturday, and Sunday 
are included, along with a shut- 
tle to the ski area. Space is lim- 
ited, so sign up now. For single 
occupancy, the price is $130 per 
person per night. 





East African Air Safari 



January 30-February 13, 1986 

Only by air safari can you have 
so much time to experience the 
thrill of a safari. By minimizing 
traveling time, you conserve your 
energy and have more time for 
game drives and leisure. You will 
visit Nairobi; Treetops, Nyeri, 
Sambuaj; Lake Baringo; Gover- 
nor's Tented Camp; and Ambo- 
seli. All air safaris and game 
drives are included. The full price 
is $2,999 per person. 



Western Caribbean 
Air/Sea Cruise 
February 8-15, 1986 

This 12-day, sunfilled deluxe 
cruise includes airfare to Ft. 
Lauderdale from most U.S. cities 
and 11 nights aboard the Sitmar 
Fairwind to the paradise islands 
of the Western Caribbean. You'll 
stop at Cozumel, Mexico; Grand 
Cayman; Panama Canal, Gatun 
Lake; San Bias Islands; Ocho 
Rios, Jamaica; and Nassau in 
the Bahamas. Starting at $2,099 
per person. 

Dutch Waterways 

Adventure 

May 17-30, 1986 

This two-week adventure was a 
sellout in 1983 and '84. You'll visit 
all of Holland — Amsterdam, 
Marken, Hoorn, Enkhuizen, 
Staveren, Ur1<, Kampen, Deven- 
ter, and Arnhem on your cruise 
through the Dutch waterways. 
Then, you'll spend three nights in 
Paris and three nights in Switzer- 
land. All meals are included on 
the cruise, and breakfast is in- 
cluded in Paris and Switzerland. 
Starting at $2,599 per person. 



VCU Alumni Travel 1985-86 

Please send me more information on the trip(s) checked below.' 

D VCU Theatre Trip 

n East African Air Safari 

□ The Homestead Ski Weekend 

n Western Caribbean Air/Sea Cruise 

n Dutch Waterways Adventure 

n Rhine River Adventure 

n New England/Cape Cod Yacht Cruise 

D The Orient 



n The British Isles 



Name . 



Address . 



Cify. 



. State . 



Zip Code . 



'Additional information is unavailable any earlier than six months /mor to the 
trip's departure date. Your name will be placed on a list to receive the brochures 
when available. 

Return to 

VCU Alumni Activities 
828 West Franlclin Street 
Rictimond, VA 23284-0001 



Rhine River Adventure 
Starting June 3, 1986, for one 
or two weelcs 

You will explore castles where 
kings walked the Swiss Alps — the 
Black Forest and valleys and 
vineyards where Europe's great- 
est cuisine was born. This trip will 
take you through four of Europe's 
most interesting Rhine River 
countries. You'll see Baden- 
Baden and Frankfurt, Germany; 
Lucerne and Engleberg, Switzer- 
land; Strasbourg, France; and 
Amsterdam, Holland, if you 
choose to take the optional 
second week of this trip. From 
Richmond, prices start at ap- 
proximately $1 ,099 per person for 
one week and $375 for the 
second week. 



New England/Cape Cod 
Yacht Cruise 
August 12-23, 1986 

This 12-day cruise aboard the 
world's newest deluxe cruise ship, 
the ultra-yacht Nantucket Clip- 
per, will take you to Boston, 
Jackson, Woodstock, Plymouth, 
Martha's Vineyard, Nantucket, 
New Bedford, and Newport. All 
51 staterooms are spacious, with 
picture windows, private bath- 
rooms, and multi-channel music. 
Starting at S1 ,899 per person. 



The Orient 

September 19-October 2, 1986 

See the best of the Orient on this 
exciting two-week Far East holi- 
day. You'll visit Tokyo and ride the 
130-mile per hour Bullet Train in 
first-class reclining seats to Kyoto, 
Japan, then fly to Bangkok, 
Thailand, and Hong Kong. This 
trip is even good the second 
time around. Starting at $2,999 
per person. 




The British Isles 
Starting October 2, 1986, for 
one, two, or ttiree weelcs 

The first week will include the 
historic sights in London and 
Wales. The optional second and 
third weeks include Edinburgh, 
Scotland, and Limerick, Ireland. 
Also optional is a full-day tour to 
France. Prices per person from 
Richmond start at approximately 
Si ,099 for the first week, 5349 for 
the second, and $229 for the 
third. 



32 



RAMS BASKETBALL 



Nicky Jones 




Inside information for 


Men's 


Basketball 1985-86 Schedule* 16 Thu 


North Carolina-Charlotte 


Rams fans 


Nov. 9 


Sat. 


18 Sat. 
Black and Gold Gome 20 Mon 


at Old Dominion 
at Western Kentucky 


The 1985-86 VCU Basketball 


20 


Wed. 


Exhibition Game 


(Arthur Ashe 23 Thu, 


Jacksonville 


Yearbook is hot off the press, 






Center) 


25 Sat. 


South Alabama 


awaiting your inspection. It's 


30 


Sat. 


UVB-Cavaller Classic 27 Mon. 


Marquette 


filled with facts and figures on all 


Dec. 1 


Sun. 


(Towson State, UNC-Wilmington, 29 Wed 


William and Mary 


the Rams players and coaches. 






Virginia, and VCU) Feb. 1 Sat. 


at South Florida 


as well as statistics, opponent 


3 


Tue. 


Richmond 


3 Mon. 


at North Carolina-Charlotte 


information, and records. Plus 


7 


Sat. 


at Virginia Tech 


6 Thu. 


UAB 


much more! The yearbook is a 


14 


Sat. 


Virginia Tech 


13 Thu. 


Old Dominion 


must for all loyal Rams fans. Cost 


20 


Fri. 


Times-Dispatch Invitational 15 Sat. 


South Florida 


is just S5. 






Tournament (VCU vs. 17 Mon 


at Jacksonville 


To get your copy, send your 






Richmond) 


19 Wed 


at James Madison 


check or money order (payable 


21 


Sat. 


(Richmond, Old Dominion, 22 Sat. 


Western Kentucky 


to the VCU Athletic Department) 






Virginia, and VCU) 27 Thu. 


Sun Belt Tournament 


to VCU Basketball Yearbook, 819 


30 


Mon. 


at George Mason 


Mar. 1 Sat. 


(Birmingham, Alabama) 


West Franklin Street, Richmond, 


Jan. 7 


Tue. 


at South Alabama 






VA 23284-0001. 


9 


Thu. 


atUAB 


■ All home games 


begin at 8:05 fim m the Richmond Coiiseum. 




11 


Sat. 


at Dayton 








13 


Mon. 


James Madison 






1 Basketball Season Ticket 

1 Nome 


Application 






1 








Check the applicable box: 




1 Address 








n VCU Faculty and Staff 


'J Young Graduate (1982-85) | 










□ Junior Ram 


I] Family Plan (four or more) | 


1 City qtntP 




— Zip 


Code 






1 Telephone ni imher ( 1 












1 Area Code 


















Signnture 




1 All season tickets offered are S55 f 

1 following information; 


or 12 home games. Complete the 












Return application to 










VCU Ticket Office 




1 Cn.^h Check ni imher 






819 West Franklin Street 
Richmond, VA 23284-0001 




j (Circle one); Visa, MasterCard, or 










Choice 








■ 








For additional information, call 257-1RAM. 1 


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VCU Magazine 

VCU Publications 

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PAID 

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Riclnmond, Virginia 




Homecoming 1986 



February 14, 15, & 16